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User Name: thar
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Topic: a year-long individual adult English Heritage membership[Multi modifiers before a noun]
Posted: Sunday, October 22, 2017 7:22:58 AM
The pattern is that you accumulate adjectives and add them at the front.

If an adjective (or an attributive noun) refers to the final noun, it is just added, in order of additional information.

It is a membership
Of what organisation? Of the organisation called 'English Heritage'. So that is an attributlve noun.

It is an English Heritage membership.

That is the most important information.

What category is the membership? It is an adult membership
There would be no point in saying it is an adult membership if you don't know what organisation it refers to.

It is an adult English Heritage membership.

What type of adult membership? It is individual membership. Children can't have individual memberships. So there would be no point in specifying that first. But an adult can have different types of membership - individual, couple. So the next logical piece of information is what type of adult membership it is.

It is an individual adult English Heritage membership.

How long will it last?
This is not a simple adjective.
You could use a simple adjective, like 'annual' and you would have an annual individual adult English Heritage membership.

BUt they do not use that simple adjective. They construct one by hyphenating a noun and adjective. It is one year long. It is a year-long membership. You have to hyphenate it because on their own, these words do not act as adjectives.
you cannot have a 'year membership'. 'Year' is not an adjective and it can't act as an attributive noun. So on its own, that is not an adjective. And a 'long membership' means something different. Calling it a year long membership makes no sense. You have to construct the adjective 'year-long' and then insert it into the list of adjectives.
Like a car engine. If you put all the pieces of an engine into a car, it doesn't work. You have to assemble the engine so it is complete, and can do its job. Then, you put it into the car, and the car can move.

So, this is a
year-long individual adult English Heritage Membership.

The important point is whether adjectives are complete, or whether they are made of parts that have to be put together before they can be used.
English Heritage is two words, but it is not hyphenated because you can see from the capital letters that it is a proper noun. It is a name, and that name consists of two words. As a proper noun it means something specific, not the general meaning of those two words (although in this case, the name is chose because it describes the organisation very simply.)

The order is controlled by logically adding the most important information then the less important. As you add then to the front of the noun, in the final sentence the most important information is at the end, right before the noun.
The order can depend on what the writer thinks is the most important information. And sometimes there is very little difference between the importance of various adjectives, so you can vary the order. But usually there is a logic, and there is an order you would naturally give the information in.
Topic: Is a comma required?
Posted: Saturday, October 21, 2017 1:11:09 PM
Yes, because it is a question.
It is in the form of a request, but the word order makes it a question.

Could someone......?
Topic: Power Sector
Posted: Saturday, October 21, 2017 1:07:37 PM

Looking up 'sector'.


1. A part or division, as of a city or a national economy: the manufacturing sector.

Carbon emissions come from many sectors. One of them is the power sector.

So, it is a part of the economy of the state.

What does 'power' connect with?

Power stations, power plants. If that does not come to you, there is a good chance this is a common phrase.

Putting 'power sector' in search engine, this is the first result I get:

India's power sector is one of the most diversified in the world. Sources of power generation range from conventional sources such as coal, lignite, natural gas, oil, hydro and nuclear power to viable non-conventional sources such as wind, solar, and agricultural and domestic waste.

So, what does 'power' mean, in terms of the power sector of the economy of a state?

What is does not cover is emissions from everything else - industry, transport, agriculture
Topic: alien to fear
Posted: Friday, October 20, 2017 3:53:25 PM
'Alien' means stranger, not from here, not belonging. Very different from. Unrelated to.

So, if a feeling is alien to fear, then fear is not part of it. It has nothing to do with fear.
Fear is not part if his feeling. It is completely absent.
Ie, as Rom says - he feels no fear.
Topic: to
Posted: Friday, October 20, 2017 3:34:34 PM

It went well.
He had never known it to go so well.

By putting in the other verb, your verb becomes the infinitive 'to go'.
So, when you use it for the second time:
You have to say 'to go' because the form has changed to an infinitive, and that is not parallel to the first instance..

The 'to + infinitive' is implied. And the previous verb, that is being referred back to, can only be 'go'.
You can omit 'go' because you already used that verb, and it is much better style not to repeat it.

The result is just 'to'.
Topic: Subtraction
Posted: Friday, October 20, 2017 3:20:53 PM
It is 'take away'- Not 'takes away'.
- an imperative, in effect.

Young children will be taught it is 'take away'

They will see 10-8 =2
And read it as
"Ten take away eight is two."

But as they get older they will be taught the 'proper' words.

The sign is a minus sign.

10 - 8 = 2
They would say that proper!y as:
"Ten minus eight equals two".

The process is subtraction.

The words for the sign and the process are different (except for division):

2 + 2
Two plus two - addition

2 - 2
Two minus two - subtraction

2 x 2
Two times two - multiplication

2 ÷ 2
Two divided by two

'Taking away' is just what children say when they are too young to be able to cope with a long word like 'subtraction'. And it is the common meaning of the words. You take something away. Put it somewhere else! You have ten apples. You take away eight of them, how many are left? So it is more real, less abstract.
Older children and adults may continue to say it that way in some situations, but is does not sound very mathematical. I assume they would be told to use the correct wording (minus) well before the time they get to secondary school at 11.

Exactly the same meaning in another register is the word 'subtract'. But that is a mathematical term, or a more formal one. And you don't use that in between the two numbers. You name the sign - 'minus'.

Topic: Give a damn
Posted: Thursday, October 19, 2017 10:32:15 AM
That would not be the opposite.

A dam/n is nothing, worthless.

If you care about thing, you value it.

This is saying you care about something so little that you don't even care about it with the smallest amount.

I don't [even] give a damn.

So, you say you give a damn means nothing.

if you see something you don't like, and you would never buy it, you would say "I wouldn't spend one penny on that".
The opposite of that is to really value it, to want it - "I would spend a fortune to have that".

You wouldn't say "I would spend one penny on that". It makes no sense.
Similarly, saying you give a damn, as a stand-alone phrase, makes no sense, the way you have expressed it.

When it can be used as a negation of the negative.

You don't give a damn about me.
Yes I do. I do give a damn.

But that only works in the context of saying "I don't 'not give a damn'" - if you see what I mean?
It makes no sense as an expression of caring. Just as negation of an accusation of not caring.

Or it can mean caring a very little, the minimum expected.
If you cared a damn about me, you wouldn't cheat on me.
ie, if you cared even a little bit. But you don't care even that little bit, you don't care at all.
Topic: Shouldn't it be "is" instead?
Posted: Thursday, October 19, 2017 4:09:30 AM
I have to say I agree with you, KO.
Of course everyone has their own way of saying things, but I have to say I have always heard 'equipment' as a simple uncountable.
Those nouns that take the plural tend to refer to people - those you can see as individuals and it is both rude and possibly not useful to group them together.

So, when you refer to an organisation in terms of its people, it is plural, but when you refer to it is a single entity (eg for business) it would be singular. With 'equipment' there is no such justification, so no reason for it to be plural.
I think it may have been used as a countable noun in the past (I seem to remember one of vkhu's books referring to 'equipments' and the discussion that followed) - but for standard modern BE it is just uncountable, singular verb, with no exceptions that I can think of.

If you want to refer to the individual components, you do.
eg - the pieces/items of equipment were....
Topic: she said where was his cake
Posted: Wednesday, October 18, 2017 8:15:52 PM
I am not sure what you mean.
What did she actually say?

Did she say:
" This man has sent me.
Where is his cake?"

So, if you report that speech, what did she say, and what diud she ask?

You don't 'say a question'. You ask a question.

Or, did she say:
"This man has sent me.
Your cake is there."

There is no question there.
If you report that speech:
She said a man had sent here. She told us where the cake was.

Those ate two completely different things, but I can't tell from your example which one you mean.
Topic: the with a store name
Posted: Wednesday, October 18, 2017 8:06:42 PM
This is not a store, it is a pub (a 'public house' ie a place you can buy a drink, a bar.) In this case, it is a restaurant that has taken a name in the style of a pub.

They are generally called 'The -------'.
The name if a thing. Not a person's name, or a business name. A pub name. Whistle

The Red Lion.
The White Hart.
The Fox and Hounds
The Ship
The Queen's Head.
The Lamb and Ewe.

The Rabbit and Turtle.

This pub is called 'The Dog and Duck.'

(Here the name "Nicholson's" at the top is the name of the brewery that 'owns' the pub. That is the name of the business, presumably founded by someone called Nicholson in 1873)

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