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Profile: coag
User Name: coag
Forum Rank: Advanced Member
Gender: Male
Joined: Saturday, March 27, 2010
Last Visit: Monday, July 6, 2020 1:35:05 AM
Number of Posts: 1,412
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  Last 10 Posts
Topic: stranger
Posted: Monday, July 6, 2020 1:30:59 AM
The famous French novel L'Étranger, by Albert Camus, is translated into English both as The Stranger and The Outsider. Wikipedia says it's The Stranger in the US and The Outsider in the UK. Strange.

1942, L' Étranger (French), Paris: Gallimard
1946, The Outsider (translated by Stuart Gilbert), London: Hamish Hamilton
1946, The Stranger (translated by Stuart Gilbert), New York: Alfred A. Knopf
1982, The Outsider (translated by Joseph Laredo), London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 978-0-141-18250-6
1989, The Stranger (translated by Matthew Ward), New York: Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-72020-1
2012, The Outsider (translated by Sandra Smith), London: Penguin, ISBN 978-0-141-38958-5
Topic: imply
Posted: Saturday, July 4, 2020 6:44:25 PM
Daemon wrote:
intent, intention - Intent implies a sustained unbroken commitment or purpose, while intention implies an intermittent resolution or an initial aim or plan.

I thought that "intent" and "intention" were interchangeable for all intensive purposes.Whistle
Topic: imply
Posted: Saturday, July 4, 2020 6:15:08 PM
In mathematics, "P implies Q" (written as P ⇒ Q or P → Q) does not have the same meaning as in an ordinary conversation.

Other ways to say P implies Q, in mathematics, are:
if P then Q
Q if P
P only if Q
P is sufficient for Q


(s) If tomorrow is a sunny day, I will go to the park. (I use an s to denote this statement)

In an everyday conversation, this usually means not only that the speaker will go to the park if tomorrow is a sunny day but also that the speaker will not go to the park if tomorrow is not a sunny day.

If it turns out that tomorrow is a rainy day and the speaker goes to the park, any way, he violated (s) in its everyday meaning but not in its mathematical meaning. The only case where the speaker would violate (s) in its mathematical meaning would be if tomorrow is a sunny day and he does not go to the park.

Mathematical implication is described with the following truth table.

T=true, F=false

It took me a lot of thinking to figure out the famous mathematical expression "if and only if". The only way I was able to figure this out was by using truth tables. The use of everyday meaning of "if" and "only if" statements is confusing for this purpose.
Topic: despondent
Posted: Friday, July 3, 2020 12:38:38 PM
lazarius wrote:
Dr Sanchika Gupta wrote:

I have memory gaps, Doc, and it makes me utterly despondent.


No need to worry, Dr says ok.
Topic: dispirit
Posted: Thursday, July 2, 2020 10:56:46 AM
lazarius wrote:
Dr Sanchika Gupta wrote:

I have memory gaps, Doc, and they dispirit me.


Nothing to worry about. The doctor says ok.
Topic: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646)
Posted: Wednesday, July 1, 2020 6:04:58 PM

This is what we called Newton-Leibniz formula, when I was in school.

"Leibniz wrote in several languages, primarily in Latin, French and German but also in English, Italian and Dutch." (Wikipedia)
Boy, this is something.

"He introduced several notations used to this day, for instance the integral sign ∫, representing an elongated S, from the Latin word summa, and the d used for differentials, from the Latin word differentia."
Interesting. I didn't know who introduced this notation.

Topic: slave
Posted: Tuesday, June 30, 2020 1:24:53 PM
Hello thar,

I don't remember ever checking the etymology of Slavs and your comment puzzled me. I did some Internet search in the meantime.

The Webster associates the origin of "slave" with "Slavs".

Slave, noun
Middle English sclave, from Anglo-French or Medieval Latin; Anglo-French esclave, from Medieval Latin sclavus, from Sclavus Slav; from the frequent enslavement of Slavs in central Europe during the early Middle Ages

But Wikipedia says that "slave" might be a misunderstandig of the Slavic word slovo "word."

'The Slavic autonym *Slověninъ is usually considered a derivation from slovo "word", originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)", i. e. people who understand each other, in contrast to the Slavic word denoting "foreign people", namely němci, meaning "mumbling, murmuring people" (from Slavic *němъ "mumbling, mute"). The latter word may be the derivation of words to denote "Germans" or "Germanic peoples" in many later Slavic languages: e. g., Czech Němec, Slovak Nemec, Slovene Nemec, Belarusian, Russian and Bulgarian Немец, Serbian Немац, Croatian Nijemac, Polish Niemiec, Ukrainian Німець, etc.,[12] but another theory states that rather these words are derived from the name of the Nemetes tribe,[13][14] which is derived from the Celtic root nemeto-.[15][16]

The word slovo ("word") and the related slava ("glory, fame, praise") and slukh ("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew- ("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος (kléos "fame"), whence comes the name Pericles, Latin clueo ("be called"), and English loud.[citation needed]

The English term slave derives from the ethnonym Slav. In medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved, which led to the word slav becoming synonym to "enslaved person".[21][22][23] In addition, the English word Slav derives from the Middle English word sclave, which was borrowed from Medieval Latin sclavus or slavus,[24][better source needed] itself a borrowing and Byzantine Greek σκλάβος sklábos "slave," which was in turn apparently derived from a misunderstanding of the Slavic autonym (denoting a speaker of their own languages).'

The Online Etymology Dictionary (OED) mentions only the Slavic word slovo as the origin of the word Slavs.

Slav (n.)
late 14c., Sclave, from Medieval Latin Sclavus (c. 800), from Byzantine Greek Sklabos (c. 580), from Old Church Slavonic Sloveninu "a Slav," probably related to slovo "word, speech," which suggests the name originally identified a member of a speech community (compare Old Church Slavonic Nemici "Germans," related to nemu "dumb;" Greek heterophonos "foreign," literally "of different voice;" and Old English þeode, which meant both "race" and "language").

OED's explanation seems plausible to me.
Topic: Unforgettable June 28
Posted: Sunday, June 28, 2020 4:54:00 PM
June 28, 1914, Sarajevo, the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and Franz Ferdinand's wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg.

World War I started one month later, on July 28, 1914.

I heard this so many times in my history classes.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg

Topic: mashed potatoes
Posted: Sunday, June 28, 2020 1:03:52 PM
A potato fun fact:
The first French fries weren’t actually cooked in France. They were cooked in Greece.
Topic: mashed potatoes
Posted: Sunday, June 28, 2020 12:47:08 PM
Many European languages use "puree" in "mashed potatoes".
Italian - purè di patate
Spanish - puré de patatas
French - purée de pomme de terre
Dutch - aardappelpuree
German - Kartoffelpüree
Russian - картофельное пюре (kartofel'noye pyure)
Croatian, Serbian - pire krompir

puree (n.)
kind of broth or soup, 1707, from French purée, a word of disputed and uncertain origin.
(Online Etymology Dictionary)

puree (n.)
French purée, from Middle French, from feminine of puré, past participle of purer to purify, strain, from Latin purare to purify, from purus