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User Name: teacherwoman
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Joined: Friday, June 19, 2009
Last Visit: Thursday, November 13, 2014 5:24:48 PM
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  Last 10 Posts
Topic: Phone vrs Phoneme
Posted: Thursday, November 13, 2014 5:24:48 PM
tdrei53589 wrote:
But isn't a phoneme also a single sound?


Yes it is. But there is a difference: a phoneme is a sound (phone) that can be used to distinguish one word from another. Phonemes can differ from language to language.

You can test if a sound is a phoneme by finding so-called minimal pairs - words with different meanings that are distinguished by one sound only.
Example: Sun and Fun - This minimal pair shows that /s/ and /f/ have phoneme status in English.

In some Asian languages, the sounds of /r/ and /l/ are not phonemes, which means that it makes nor difference in meaning whether you say - rol or lol.

In my native language /z/ and /s/ aren't phonemes, which makes it hard for my students to hear the difference between face and phase.

BTW /z/ and /s/ in my language would be called "allophones" - two sounds that can be used for the same phoneme :-)
Topic: Are all sentences correct, please?
Posted: Friday, June 27, 2014 5:22:37 PM
tnedutS wrote:
Hi, please help me.

I know there may be slight differences in meaning for the sentences below.

Could you please just let me know if all of them are grammatically correct? Which sounds more natural for a native speaker?

1 I am so happy I am your new teacher!

2 I am so happy that I am your teacher!

3 I am so happy being your teacher!

4 I am so happy for being your teacher!

5 I am so happy because I am your teacher!

I will be glad to be corrected in my posts whenever I make any mistake.

Thank you so much!


I think you could say 1), 2), 5). I don't think there is a difference in meaning, but in style. 1) and 2 are basically the same 2) being more formal. I wouldn't use 3) when I say hello to a new class, rather when we talk about things that make us happy.

However, I would prefer "I'm happy to be your teacher" to all of the above.

I would not use 3) or 4)


Topic: Kindly explain
Posted: Friday, June 27, 2014 4:51:48 PM
I'm not sure I understand that question.
You've put it in the grammar section - but I can't see any grammatical ambiguity.

Pope Eugene - according to this sentence - was in *Tusculum* whence he had fled five months before. "They" (whoever they are) met him in Tusculum, not in Rome.

I don't understand why you seem to think that he was back in Rome. Or are you asking whether this statement is historically correct? As far as I can google, Eugene III spent more time away from Rome than in Rome.
Topic: a running man vs. a man running
Posted: Wednesday, June 18, 2014 4:08:15 AM
nima_persian wrote:
nima_persian wrote:
Thanks.

Number b can have 2 different meanings. Have I correctly written them? and would please first consider what I have written then answer me?



B.I saw a fighting man on the street.


1. On the street, I saw the man. on the street the man was fighting as well.

2. On the street, I saw the man. In an unknown place the man was fighting.







Number b), again, is not a meaningful sentence. Neither meaning you've noted is correct.

Meaning 1) needs this sentence:

I saw a man fighting in the street.

Meaning 2) is logically difficult. How can a man be fighting in an unknown place and be seen by you in the street at the same time? Meaning 2 does not make any sense.


The thing is that the meaning of words (=semantics) interacts with grammar. Grammar books tell you that you can use -ing forms as adjectives, but it depends on the meaning of the verb +ing whether you can use it before a noun (attributive) or as a predicative (in connection with a verb).

If you want to use an -ing form before a noun you have to ask yourself: can this statement express something characteristic of the given noun?

A fighting man would be someone inclined to fight a lot. It would be part of his character or his personal situation. It could refer to a soldier. However, I would not use this phrase because it sounds clumsy and there are many better words to express a willingness or inclination to fight.

Salesh2010's example of "a starving man" is a point in case. "Starving" is the process which defines the man's situation.

You can talk about a waiting room (= a room people can wait in), but a *waiting man* is not a possible statement.
In a waiting room there was a man waiting ... . (This is what the man was doing when he was in the waiting room).






Topic: a running man vs. a man running
Posted: Tuesday, June 17, 2014 7:04:04 AM
Hello,

nima_persian wrote:
Hi again.

Would you tell me what is the difference between the meaning following?

A running man who was on the street.( when do you say this one?)


Although this sentence is grammatically possible, I can't think of any suitable context.

In "a running man", running serves as an adjective modifying the noun, compare "a big man", "a dark man". In that position (before the noun) the adjective defines what the [noun] is like - dark, big or - in your case - running. And herein lies the problem: what could be a "running man" - somebody who runs for a living?

Here is an example of "running" as an adjective: a running nose - when you have a cold, this is what your nose is like.


nima persian wrote:
A man who was running on the street.( when do you say this one?)

In your second example was running is the verb (or to be more exact: predicate) of the sentence - "running" in combination with "was" (or any other form of "to be") serves as part of the verb. So this sentence describes a man in action - somebody (who was) running.
However, the sentence is not complete.

I saw a man who was running on the street.
or
A man who was running on the street stopped suddenly.



You could even shorten that to: I saw a man running down the street. In that case "running" is short for "who was running". Here again, "running" is part of the verb structure.
Topic: going to
Posted: Wednesday, February 27, 2013 3:57:33 PM
"I feel I'm going to fall ill" sounds to me as if you were already experiencing some symptoms. To my mind "going to" implies some evidence [as in: It's going to rain (because I can see the clouds)]. But I also know people who don't see any difference between "will" and "going to".
Topic: see(ing)
Posted: Wednesday, February 27, 2013 3:36:21 PM
boa wrote:
What difference do you feel between?

1) I see a client tomorrow at 5.
2) I am seeing a client tomorrow at 5.

Can it be that in the first case there is a mutual agreement between me and my client while in the second is more of my intention without having my client informed? Or may be there are more differences?


Both sentences are in the active voice. 1) is present simple, 2) is present progressive (or continuous).

According to grammarbooks, the simple present is used for time-table events: the train leaves at 6 o'clock. School starts at 8:30. If you follow that rule, 1) could refer to a scheduled event.

The present progressive is used when talking about intentions, plans and personal arrangements.
However, in both cases I would assume the client knows about the appointment.


Topic: tense aspect
Posted: Friday, February 22, 2013 9:57:42 AM
boa wrote:




Water boils at 100°C
The Earth moves around the sun (although it is moving right now, too)

I find these examples misleading. Because they go astray from that special use of the Present Simple which we observe in the example with Obama. The charm if the use of the Present Simple here is due to the fact that it has NOTHING to do with general facts and expresses the action which can hardly be called even a habitual action. I don't think that doing something throughout the night is considered a habitual activity. It can be, although, considered a repeated action.

Obama's "Why do you laugh" addresses more the attitude than the actual laughing.

This one is interesting. Whose attitude is implied here? Could you give more examples which could demonstrate this usage featuring someone's attitude by means of Present Simple. It would be very interesting to have such examples.




I didn't say so explicitly, but my reasoning behind this was: present simple expresses general statements. If Obama uses the simple present instead of progressive when people are laughing at him, he might have intended to "generalize" his statement, implying that the people who are laughing are not merely expressing their momentary feeling of joy or happiness (or derisiveness), but that their laughter expresses a more general attitude or hostility towards him.

I should think the phrase You ask a lot of questions (mentioned in earlier posts) has the same implication, i.e. You're an inquisitive person.

Topic: tense aspect
Posted: Thursday, February 21, 2013 12:02:15 PM
boa wrote:
OK. How would you define the reason for Present Simple in this case?

For a moment Kemp sat in silence, staring at the back of the headless figure at the window. Then he started, struck by a thought, rose, took the Invisible Man's arm, and turned him away from the outlook.

"You are tired," he said, "and while I sit, you walk about. Have my chair."

He placed himself between Griffin and the nearest window.

/H. G. Wells: The Invisible Man/



In (British) English, while can be followed by either a progressive or a simple verb. In fact, with verbs like sit, lie, grow the use of present simple is quite common (perhaps because these verbs already express continuing actions).

Why don't you cook supper (never mind how) while I just sit here and watch TV.

Topic: tense aspect
Posted: Thursday, February 21, 2013 11:51:28 AM
boa wrote:


Obama's speech

The Republicans were a laugh line throughout the night, especially the presidential field that was, at the same time, holding its 17th debate in North Charleston, South Carolina. "Why do you laugh?" the president deadpanned at one point, to more laughs. "They're running for president"


DragOnspeaker has pointed out that the present simple is used for habitual acts. More broadly speaking, it is also used to express general facts.

Water boils at 100°C
The Earth moves around the sun (although it is moving right now, too)

Obama's "Why do you laugh" addresses more the attitude than the actual laughing.