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Verbal prefixes in Latin which also occur in English Options
rogermue
Posted: Thursday, April 30, 2015 5:36:23 PM

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Verbal prefixes in Latin which also occur in English

This is an attempt at showing that if you study the English vocabulary you study Latin as well
without knowing. This is the first time that I try something of this kind, and I'm not sure whether
my attempt will be successful. But I think something of this kind should be presented.

First I'll give a table of Latin verbal prefixes with translation. All these prefixes occur in the English dictionary as well.
Then I will show that learners not only learn English but actually learn Latin without their knowing.
I take only one single Latin verb, ducere meaning to guide, to lead, to draw.
The forms that occur in English are duc, -duce, -duct

1 Verbal prefixes in Latin
Source: en.wiktionary

ab from, away
ad to, toward
ante before
circum around
con with, altogether - my remark: sometimes devoid of sense; just an element to form variants
contra against
de from, down
ex/e out of, away
extra outside of, beyond
in in on, against
inter/intra/intro between, amid
ob against, before, in the face of
per through
prae before, ahead of
praeter beside, by
pro for, forward - Remark: This prefix has the variants prae/pre/pri/pro and por, all with the basic meaning fore/forward
re back, again
se apart
sub/subter under, up
super over
trans/tra across

The Latin compound verbs of ducere have the prefixes
ab circum con de e in intro ob per prae praeter pro re se sub subter super tra

English compound verbs
to con'duct - noun: the 'conduct
to deduce
to induce
to introduce - an introduction
to produce - the produce, the product, the production
to reduce - a reduction
to seduce a woman - the seduction
to subdue - remark: This is the only verb I know where we have -due instead of -duce. French influence: Latin ducere becomes
-duire in French.
(to transduce) - electricity: a transducer

I think that is what I wanted to show. I hope it will be helpful for some learners to see that
below the English vocabulary there is sometimes the system of another language.
If questions arise I'll try to answer them if possible. Suggestions or interesting links are wecome.
Medea
Posted: Thursday, April 30, 2015 6:11:52 PM

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remember that Romans were in britain for about four hundred years sharing land with Celtic people, when they returned to Rome,Celtics were left alone and Nothern Europe people invaded them changing all the rules and language.



rogermue
Posted: Thursday, April 30, 2015 6:27:55 PM

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Well, I think the Latin system of verbal prefixes is well preserved in English as you will find with hundreds of English verbs.
Kermit the Frog
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 1:57:56 AM

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Thanks, Rogermue, for this spectacular demonstration! It really made my day :) I also found this: http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2013/11/english-words-of-latin-origin/ and it proves your point beyond any doubt. We are all Latin speakers now and then even without knowing it!
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 2:54:37 AM

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Thank you, Kermit. Really an interesting link. I think there should be
more on the Internet as to the topic Latin in English.
Drag0nspeaker
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 3:26:20 AM

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Hi Roger,

Yes - the Romans actually integrated fairly well in the south-east particularly (after a few problems in the Ashdown Forest).

They weren't so popular in Palestine, it seems.

rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 3:37:18 AM

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Wow, what a fine picture! Really a highlight, Dragon.
I didn't count how often you can read Romani ite domum,
but it means Romans, go home!
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 3:57:57 AM

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Here's another survey I found on the Internet showing more derivations of the verb dúcere
in the English dictionary.

ducō duc- dux- duct- lead
duco - I lead, I guide. The ending -o derives from ego (I, my person); my view.
duc - the stem of all forms of present tense
dux - the stem of all forms of perfect tenses, eg dux-it he has lead/guided
duct - the stem of the past participle. Mostly used for derivation of nouns

ab - abduce, abducent, abduction, abductor,
ad - adduce, adducent, adduct, adduction, adductor,
circum - circumduction,
con - conduce, conducent, conduction, conductive, conductivity, conductor,
de - deduce, deduct, deductible, deduction, deductive,
duct - the third stem: ductile, ductility, ductor,
e - educe, educt,
in - induce, inducement, induct, induction, inductive, inductor,
intro - introduce, introduction, introductory,
re - irreducible, nonconductive,
-- The negative prefix in- corresponds to non, un; in+l becomes ill-, in+r becomes irr-
pro -produce, product, production, productive, productivity,
re - reduce, reducible, reduction, redux, reintroduction, reproduce, reproduction, reproductive,
se - seduce, seduction, seductive,
semi - meaning half: semiconductor,
sub - subduction,
super - superconductivity, superconductor,
tra - traduce, traducent, traducian, traduct, traduction

Source:http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Latin_words_with_English_derivatives#Verbs
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 4:20:07 AM

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Another link, just for those who are interested in the Latin vocabulary in the
English dictionary:

http://www.enhancemyvocabulary.com/word-roots_latin.html

The portal enhance my vocabulary says 60 percent of the English vocabulary are Latin.
That would be my guess, too or even more.
If you want to get an idea of the immense influence of Latin on English
take your dictionary and look up con- (Latin prefix). Just count how many pages you have
containing words with con-. Variants of con- by assimilation, eg con + m becomes comm-,
are comm-, coll-, corr-.
My Longman DCE has 21 double pages alone for comm- and con-.
Drag0nspeaker
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 4:52:55 AM

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rogermue wrote:
Wow, what a fine picture! Really a highlight, Dragon.
I didn't count how often you can read Romani ite domum,
but it means Romans, go home!


His original 'graffito' was
Romanes eunt domus.
The Roman soldiers made him write it correctly a hundred times, as a punishment for his bad grammar . . .

There are also the noun-forms from ducō duc- dux- duct- lead

A Duke, dutchess
A duct, ducting, duct-tape

And the adjectives
Ducal, ductile
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 5:01:11 AM

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Basic Latin

It would be a wonderful thing if we had a means that would allow people to understand the
Latin vocabulary in English.
Of course, it would not be practical to study nine school years to learn Latin. What we learn at school
is an artistic literary language full of irregularities.
But actually we only need the key to the Latin vocabulary.

My idea that I had about in the eighties was we should have something like "Basic Latin".
That would be a strongly simplified language, with no irreguarites, with regular modern word order
as in English, and without those horrible endings for declensions and conjugations. Why five declensions with
a lot of variants and why five conjugations? One declension and one conjugation would be enough.
Such a thing would be a wonderful means to convey the Latin vocabulary, not only for English, but also for
Italian, French etc.

I did experiments with Basic Latin and even wrote some simple texts, fairy tales like Little Red Cap or in AmE
Little Red Riding Hood.
It is no problem at all to create a simple form of Basic Latin. I abolished all endings of conjugation and declension and introduced modern means with personal pronouns and prepositions as in English.
I guess we could teach the basics of Latin in half a year and everybody had the key for difficult foreign words.

Of course, the development of such a thing as Basic Latin is not the work of a single person. We need grammars, dictionaries ,
collections of texts and textbooks for teaching that matter. In short, the work of several staffs and publishing houses,
a work that would perhaps take up ten years.

Don't underestimate the importance of the Latin vocabulary. The world language number one is not English or Chinese.
The secret world language number one in the western world is still Latin, as the Latin vocabulary is the key of academic and scientific language and of foreign words. If you don't have the key to that language you understand almost next to nothing of the world.
tunaafi
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 5:09:07 AM

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rogermue wrote:

My idea that I had about in the eighties was we should have something like "Basic Latin".
That would be a strongly simplified language, with no irreguarites, with regular modern word order as in English, and without those horrible endings for declensions and conjugations.


You are not the first to think of this: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latino_sine_flexione
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 5:21:04 AM

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Thanks for your link, Tunaafi. Peano's good invention of a simple Latin in 1903 only shows
that the idea of a basic Latin is reasonable. Unfortunately we still teach classical Latin to perhaps ten percent of the population. But Basic Latin should be a general school matter for all in primary schools.
MelissaMe
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 12:33:42 PM

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In junior high school I had a class titled Greek and Latin prefixes and suffixes.

Great class, it has been useful in understanding new words my whole life! Applause
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 1:50:34 PM

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At MelissaMe - A very good thing, your class about Latin and Greek word formation.
Was it a subject of your special school or is that subject a standard matter at
all high schools?
Elvandil
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 2:52:46 PM

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rogermue wrote:
Thank you, Kermit. Really an interesting link. I think there should be
more on the Internet as to the topic Latin in English.


There is a huge repository of information on Latin in English (as well as Greek and other languages). A good course in etymology would introduce you to it.

BTW: Though the Romans were in England for quite a while, little of their language made its way to English via that route. Latin words found in English were either manufactured or came through Norman French.

Audiendus
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 9:24:45 PM
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Elvandil wrote:
BTW: Though the Romans were in England for quite a while, little of their language made its way to English via that route. Latin words found in English were either manufactured or came through Norman French.

Yes. Two words that do originate in Roman England are wine (from Latin vinum) and street (from Latin strata).
rogermue
Posted: Friday, May 1, 2015 11:52:27 PM

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