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and by his death 16 years later he had founded . . . Options
onsen
Posted: Monday, June 7, 2021 10:48:18 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/14/2017
Posts: 1,083
Neurons: 10,171
Hello,

Quote:

tutelage

omitted

Tutelage usually means specialized and individual guidance. Alexander the Great was under the tutelage of the philosopher Aristotle between the ages 13 and 16, and his tutor inspired him with a love of philosophy, medicine, and science. At 16 he commanded his first army, and by his death 16 years later he had founded the greatest empire ever seen. But it’s not so easy to trace the effects of the brilliant tutelage he had received in his youth.

(Merriam-Webster’s Vocabulary Builder)


Please explain the use of the past perfect in the two underlined places and why the past simple is not used there.
(The past simple is being shown in brown.)


Thank you.
FounDit
Posted: Monday, June 7, 2021 11:04:44 AM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/19/2011
Posts: 15,996
Neurons: 76,374
onsen wrote:
Hello,

Quote:

tutelage

omitted

Tutelage usually means specialized and individual guidance. Alexander the Great was under the tutelage of the philosopher Aristotle between the ages 13 and 16, and his tutor inspired him with a love of philosophy, medicine, and science. At 16 he commanded his first army, and by his death 16 years later he had founded the greatest empire ever seen. But it’s not so easy to trace the effects of the brilliant tutelage he had received in his youth.

(Merriam-Webster’s Vocabulary Builder)


Please explain the use of the past perfect in the two underlined places and why the past simple is not used there.
(The past simple is being shown in brown.)


Thank you.


The past perfect is used because these two things had occurred by the time he died at 32 years of age. He had received the tutelage before 16, and the empire had been founded before his death at 32.
thar
Posted: Monday, June 7, 2021 11:23:02 AM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 7/8/2010
Posts: 24,421
Neurons: 98,922
You have past events, relative to now

he was..
his tutor inspired
he commanded...


you have past events relative to an event in the past (he died in the past)

before that - he had founded an empire




and another - he was an adult, and did stuff
before that - he had received tutelage in his youth

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