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Johanna "Jenny" Maria Lind (1820) Options
Daemon
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Johanna "Jenny" Maria Lind (1820)

One of the greatest coloratura sopranos of her time, Lind was a Swedish opera star who caused a sensation touring Europe. American showman P.T. Barnum used his innovative publicity techniques to arrange a hugely successful 1850 US tour for her. Hans Christian Andersen once fell in love with her and wrote "The Nightingale" in her honor, leading to her nickname, "The Swedish Nightingale." Many things have been named for Lind, including a clipper ship, a class of locomotive, and what else? More...
KSPavan
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Johanna "Jenny" Maria Lind (1820)
One of the greatest coloratura sopranos of her time, Lind was a Swedish opera star who caused a sensation touring Europe. American showman P.T. Barnum used his innovative publicity techniques to arrange a hugely successful 1850 US tour for her. Hans Christian Andersen once fell in love with her and wrote "The Nightingale" in her honor, leading to her nickname, "The Swedish Nightingale."
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Lind, Jenny
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Jenny Lind
Daguerreotype of Lind, by her Swedish classmate Poly Von Schneidau, made in New York in 1850

Johanna Maria Lind (6 October 1820 – 2 November 1887), better known as Jenny Lind, was a Swedish opera singer, often known as the "Swedish Nightingale". One of the most highly regarded singers of the 19th century, she performed in soprano roles in opera in Sweden and across Europe, and undertook an extraordinarily popular concert tour of America beginning in 1850. She was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music from 1840.

Lind became famous after her performance in Der Freischütz in Sweden in 1838. Within a few years, she had suffered vocal damage, but the singing teacher Manuel García saved her voice. She was in great demand in opera roles throughout Sweden and northern Europe during the 1840s, becoming the protégée of Felix Mendelssohn. After two acclaimed seasons in London, she announced her retirement from opera at the age of 29.

In 1850, Lind went to America at the invitation of the showman P. T. Barnum. She gave 93 large-scale concerts for him and then continued to tour under her own management. She earned more than $350,000 from these concerts, donating the proceeds to charities, principally the endowment of free schools in Sweden. With her new husband, Otto Goldschmidt, she returned to Europe in 1852 where she had three children and gave occasional concerts over the next two decades, settling in England in 1855. From 1882, for some years, she was a professor of singing at the Royal College of Music in London.
Life and career
Early years
Lind as Amina in La sonnambula

Born in Klara, in central Stockholm, Lind was the extramarital daughter of Niclas Jonas Lind (1798–1858), a bookkeeper, and Anne-Marie Fellborg (1793–1856), a schoolteacher.[1] Lind's mother had divorced her first husband for adultery but, for religious reasons, refused to remarry until after his death in 1834. Lind's parents married when she was fourteen.[1]

Lind's mother ran a day school for girls out of her home. When Lind was about nine years old, her singing was overheard by the maid of Mademoiselle Lundberg, the principal dancer at the Royal Swedish Opera.[1] The maid, astounded by Lind's extraordinary voice, returned the next day with Lundberg, who arranged an audition and helped her gain admission to the acting school of the Royal Dramatic Theatre, where she studied with Karl Magnus Craelius, the singing master at the theatre.[2]

Lind began to sing onstage when she was ten. She had a vocal crisis at the age of 12 and had to stop singing for a time, but recovered.[2] Her first great role was Agathe in Weber's Der Freischütz in 1838 at the Royal Swedish Opera.[1] At age 20 she was a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Music and court singer to the King of Sweden and Norway. Her voice became seriously damaged by overuse and untrained singing technique, but her career was saved by the singing teacher Manuel García, with whom she studied in Paris from 1841 to 1843. So damaged was her voice that he insisted that she should not sing at all for three months, to allow her vocal cords to recover, before he started to teach her a secure vocal technique.[1][2]

After Lind had been with García for a year, the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer, an early and faithful admirer of her talent, arranged an audition for her at the Opéra in Paris, but she was rejected. The biographer Francis Rogers concludes that Lind strongly resented the rebuff: when she became an international star, she always refused invitations to sing at the Paris Opéra.[3] Lind returned to the Royal Swedish Opera, greatly improved as a singer by García's training. She toured Denmark where, in 1843, Hans Christian Andersen met and fell in love with her. Although the two became good friends, she did not reciprocate his romantic feelings. She is believed to have inspired three of his fairy tales: "Beneath the Pillar", "The Angel" and "The Nightingale".[4] He wrote, "No book or personality whatever has exerted a more ennobling influence on me, as a poet, than Jenny Lind. For me she opened the sanctuary of art."[4] The biographer Carol Rosen believes that after Lind rejected Andersen as a suitor, he portrayed her as The Snow Queen with a heart of ice.[1]
German and British success
photograph of Victorian woman in dress and shawl, pearl necklace, body facing right, smiling face facing viewer
Lind in the 1840s

In December 1844, through Meyerbeer's influence, Lind was engaged to sing the title role in Bellini's opera Norma in Berlin.[3] This led to more engagements in opera houses throughout Germany and Austria, although such was her success in Berlin that she continued there for four months before leaving for other cities.[2] Among her admirers were Robert Schumann, Hector Berlioz and, most importantly for her, Felix Mendelssohn.[5] He wrote, "Jenny Lind has fairly enchanted me; she is unique in her way, and her song with two concertante flutes is perhaps the most incredible feat in the way of bravura singing that can possibly be heard".[3] This number, from Meyerbeer's Ein Feldlager in Schlesien (1844; a role written for Lind but not premiered by her), became one of the songs most associated with Lind, and she was called on to sing it wherever she performed in concert.[1] Her operatic repertoire comprised the title roles in Lucia di Lammermoor, Maria di Rohan, Norma, La sonnambula and La vestale, as well as Susanna in The Marriage of Figaro, Adina in L'elisir d'amore and Alice in Robert le diable. About this time she became known as "the Swedish Nightingale". In December 1845, the day after her debut at the Leipzig Gewandhaus under the baton of Mendelssohn, she sang without fee for a charity concert in aid of the Orchestra Widows' Fund. Her devotion and generosity to charitable causes remained a key aspect of her career and greatly enhanced her international popularity even among the unmusical.[1]

After a successful season in Vienna, where she was mobbed by admirers and feted by the Imperial Family,[2] Lind travelled to London in 1847, where her first performance, at Her Majesty's Theatre on 4 May, was attended by Queen Victoria. The Times wrote the next day, "We have had frequent experience of the excitement appertaining to "first nights", but we may safely say, and our opinion will be backed by several hundreds of Her Majesty's subjects, that we never witnessed such a scene of enthusiasm as that displayed last night on the occasion of Mademoiselle Jenny Lind's début as Alice in an Italian version of Robert le Diable."[6]

In London, Lind's close friendship with Mendelssohn continued. There has been strong speculation that their relationship was more than friendship, but no conclusive evidence has been published in support of this supposition.[n 1] Mendelssohn was present at Lind's London debut, and his friend, the critic H. F. Chorley, who was with him, wrote "I see as I write the smile with which Mendelssohn, whose enjoyment of Mdlle. Lind's talent was unlimited, turned round and looked at me, as if a load of anxiety had been taken off his mind. His attachment to Mlle. Lind's genius as a singer was unbounded, as was his desire for her success".[11] Mendelssohn worked with Lind on many occasions and wrote the beginnings of an opera, Lorelei, for her, based on the legend of the Lorelei Rhine maidens; the opera was unfinished at his death. He included a high F sharp in his oratorio Elijah ("Hear Ye Israel") with Lind's voice in mind.[12]

In July 1847, Lind starred in the world première of Verdi's opera I masnadieri at Her Majesty's, under the baton of the composer.[13] Four months later, she was devastated by the premature death of Mendelssohn in November 1847. She did not at first feel able to sing the soprano part in Elijah, which he had written for her. She finally did so at a performance in London's Exeter Hall in late 1848, which raised £1,000 to fund a musical scholarship as a memorial to him; it was her first appearance in oratorio.[14] The original intention had been to found a school of music in Mendelssohn's name in Leipzig, but there was not enough support for that in Leipzig, and with the help of Sir George Smart, Julius Benedict and others, Lind eventually raised enough money to fund a scholarship "to receive pupils of all nations and promote their musical training".[14] The first recipient of the Mendelssohn Scholarship was the 14-year-old Arthur Sullivan, whom Lind encouraged in his career.[1]

At the Royal Swedish Opera, Lind had been friends with the tenor Julius Günther. They sang together both in opera and on the concert stage, becoming romantically linked by 1844. T

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monamagda
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Johanna Maria Lind by Joseph Durham[English Sculptor, 1814-1877]
monamagda
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The Swedish Nightingale in White marble



Johanna Maria Lind by Joseph Durham[English Sculptor, 1814-1877]


Bust of Johanna Maria Lind-Goldschmidt (called Jenny Lind), slightly turned to the right, dressed in a loose mantle with a flower at her breast and leaves on the pedestal.

AnUriDhASOKUMAR
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Daemon wrote:
Johanna "Jenny" Maria Lind (1820)

One of the greatest coloratura sopranos of her time, Lind was a Swedish opera star who caused a sensation touring Europe. American showman P.T. Barnum used his innovative publicity techniques to arrange a hugely successful 1850 US tour for her. Hans Christian Andersen once fell in love with her and wrote "The Nightingale" in her honor, leading to her nickname, "The Swedish Nightingale." Many things have been named for Lind, including a clipper ship, a class of locomotive, and what else? More...
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