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Nubian Pyramids Options
Daemon
Posted: Wednesday, September 27, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Nubian Pyramids

In the 8th century BCE, Egypt was conquered by Kushites from Napata—a city located to the south of Egypt in the area known today as Sudan. Although Napatan pharaohs ruled Egypt, it was Egypt that had an enormous cultural impact on Napata, prompting a period of vigorous pyramid-building that continued even in Napata's successor kingdom, Meroë. Approximately 220 pyramids were eventually built as tombs for Kushite kings and queens. These pyramids differ from their Egyptian counterparts in what way? More...
monamagda
Posted: Wednesday, September 27, 2017 9:19:48 AM

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raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Wednesday, September 27, 2017 9:31:03 AM

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Nubian pyramids
Nubian pyramids
Aerial view at Nubian pyramids, Meroe

Nubian pyramids are pyramids that were built by the rulers of the Kushite (centered around Napata and Meroe) and Egyptian kingdoms. Prior to the Kushites building these pyramids (which are located in modern day Sudan), there had been no pyramid construction in Egypt and the Nile Valley for more than 500 years.

The area of the Nile valley known as Nubia, which lies within present day Sudan, was home to three Kushite kingdoms during antiquity. The first had its capital at Kerma from (2600–1520 BC). The second was centered around Napata from (1000–300 BC). Finally, the last kingdom was centered around Meroë (300 BC–AD 300).

Kerma was Nubia's first centralized state with its own indigenous forms of architecture and burial customs. The last two kingdoms, Napata and Meroe, were heavily influenced by ancient Egypt; culturally, economically, politically, and militarily. The Kushite kingdoms in turn competed strongly with Egypt. In fact, during the late period of Ancient Egyptian history, the rulers of Napata conquered and unified Egypt herself. The Napatans ruled as the pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. The Napatan domination of Egypt ended with the Assyrian conquest in 656 BC.
The Pyramids

Approximately 255 pyramids[1] were eventually constructed at three sites in Nubia over a period of a few hundred years to serve as tombs for the kings and queens of Napata and Meroë. The first of these was built at the site of el-Kurru, including the tombs of King Kashta and his son Piye (Piankhi), together with Piye's successors Shabaka, Shabataka, and Tanwetamani. Fourteen pyramids were constructed for their queens, several of whom were renowned warrior queens. This can be compared to approximately 120 much larger pyramids that were constructed in Ancient Egypt over a period of 3000 years.

Later Napatan pyramids were sited at Nuri, on the west bank of the Nile in Upper Nubia. This necropolis was the burial place of 21 kings and 52 queens and princes including Anlami and Aspelta. The bodies of these kings were placed in huge granite sarcophagi. Aspelta's weighed 15.5 tons, and its lid weighed four tons.[2] The oldest and largest pyramid at Nuri is that of the Napatan king and Twenty-fifth Dynasty pharaoh Taharqa.
Wide view of Nubian pyramids, Meroe. Three of these pyramids are reconstructed.

The most extensive Nubian pyramid site is at Meroë, which is located between the fifth and sixth cataracts of the Nile, approximately one hundred kilometres north of Khartoum. During the Meroitic period, over forty queens and kings were buried there.

The physical proportions of Nubian pyramids differ markedly from the Egyptian edifices: they are built of stepped courses of horizontally positioned stone blocks and range from approximately six to thirty metres in height, but rise from fairly small foundation footprints that rarely exceed eight metres in width, resulting in tall, narrow structures inclined at approximately seventy degrees. Most also have offering temple structures abutting their base with unique Kushite characteristics. By comparison, Egyptian pyramids of similar height generally had foundation footprints that were at least five times larger and were inclined at angles of between forty and fifty degrees.

All of the pyramid tombs of Nubia were plundered in ancient times, but wall reliefs preserved in the tomb chapels reveal that their royal occupants were mummified, covered with jewellery and laid to rest in wooden mummy cases. At the time of their exploration by archaeologists in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, some pyramids were found to contain the remains of bows, quivers of arrows, archers' thumb rings, horse harnesses, wooden boxes, furniture, pottery, colored glass, metal vessels, and many other artifacts attesting to extensive Meroitic trade with Egypt and the Hellenistic world.

A pyramid excavated at Meroë included hundreds of heavy items such as large blocks adorned with rock art and 390 stones that comprised the pyramid. A cow buried complete with eye ointment was also unearthed in the area to be flooded by the Meroë Dam, as were musical rocks that were tapped to create a melodic sound.[3]
Cemeteries

The royal cemetery at el-Kurru. Buried here were Kashta, Piye, Tantamani, Shabaka and several queens are buried in pyramids at El-Kurru.
The Pyramids of Meroe (Begarawiyah). Dating to the Meroitic period. Pyramids date to 720 - 300 BC (South Cemetery) and ca 300 BC to about 350 AD (North Cemetery)
The royal cemetery at Nuri. King Taharqa and other royals from the kingdom of Napata are buried at Nuri.
Pyramids of Gebel Barkal

See also

Ancient Egypt
Candace of Meroë
Kingdom of Kush
List of megalithic sites
Meroë
Nubia
Nubian architecture

References

^ Cluster of 35 Ancient Pyramids and Graves Discovered in Sudan
^ Lehner, Mark (1997). The Complete Pyramids. Thames and Hudson. pp. 196–197. ISBN 978-0-500-05084-2.
^ Adams, Stephen (16 October 2008). "Ancient Egypt had powerful Sudan rival, British Museum dig shows". The Telegraph.

External links

Pyramids of Nubia – A site detailing the three major pyramid sites of ancient Nubia
Nubian Pyramids – A site featuring numerous photographs of the pyramids at Meroë
Aerial Photographs of Sudan – A site featuring spectacular aerial photographs of the pyramids and temples at el-Kurru, Nuri, and Meroë
Voyage au pays des pharaons noirs Travel in Sudan and notes on the Nubian history (French)

This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia® - the free encyclopedia created and edited by its online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of Wikipedia® encyclo

with my pleasure
taurine
Posted: Wednesday, September 27, 2017 5:06:20 PM

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The name of the ruler was not carved on the top stone.
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