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Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity. Options
Daemon
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity.

Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC)
Mehrdad77
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 2:49:19 AM

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There is no education like adversity.






Benjamin Disraeli











zina antoaneta
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 4:00:43 AM

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Great quote!
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 4:04:53 AM

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Aristotle
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Aristotle (ăr'ĭstŏt`əl), 384–322 B.C., Greek philosopher, b. Stagira. He is sometimes called the Stagirite.
Life

Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was a noted physician. Aristotle studied (367–347 B.C.) under Plato at the Academy

and there wrote many dialogues that were praised for their eloquence. Only fragments of these dialogues are extant. He tutored (342–c.339 B.C.) Alexander the Great at the Macedonian court, left to live in Stagira, and then returned to Athens. In 335 B.C. he opened a school in the Lyceum; some distinguished members of the Academy followed him. His practice of lecturing in the Lyceum's portico, or covered walking place (peripatos), gave his school the name Peripatetic. During the anti-Macedonian agitation after Alexander's death, Aristotle fled in 323 B.C. to Chalcis, where he died.
Works

Aristotle's extant writings consist largely of his written versions of his lectures; some passages appear to be interpolations of notes made by his students; the texts were edited and given their present form by Andronicus of Rhodes in the 1st cent. B.C. Chief among them are the Organum, consisting of six treatises on logic; Physics; Metaphysics; De Anima [on the soul]; Nicomachean Ethics and Eudemian Ethics; De Poetica [poetics]; Rhetoric; and a series of works on biology and physics. In the late 19th cent. his Constitution of Athens, an account of Athenian government, was found.
Philosophy
Logic and Metaphysics

Aristotle placed great emphasis in his school on direct observation of nature, and in science he taught that theory must follow fact. He considered philosophy to be the discerning of the self-evident, changeless first principles that form the basis of all knowledge. Logic

was for Aristotle the necessary tool of any inquiry, and the syllogism

was the sequence that all logical thought follows. He introduced the notion of category into logic and taught that reality could be classified according to several categories—substance (the primary category), quality, quantity, relation, determination in time and space, action, passion or passivity, position, and condition.

Aristotle also taught that knowledge of a thing, beyond its classification and description, requires an explanation of causality

, or why it is. He posited four causes or principles of explanation: the material cause (the substance of which the thing is made); the formal cause (its design); the efficient cause (its maker or builder); and the final cause (its purpose or function). In modern thought the efficient cause is generally considered the central explanation of a thing, but for Aristotle the final cause had primacy.

He used this account of causes to examine the relation of form to matter, and in his conclusions differed sharply from those of his teacher, Plato. Aristotle believed that a form, with the exception of the Prime Mover, or God, had no separate existence, but rather was immanent in matter. Thus, in the Aristotelian system, form and matter together constitute concrete individual realities; the Platonic system holds that a concrete reality partakes of a form (the ideal) but does not embody it. Aristotle believed that form caused matter to move and defined motion as the process by which the potentiality of matter (the thing itself) became the actuality of form (motion itself). He held that the Prime Mover alone was pure form and as the "unmoved mover" and final cause was the goal of all motion.
Ethics and Other Aspects

Aristotle's ethical theory reflects his metaphysics. Following Plato, he argued that the goodness or virtue of a thing lay in the realization of its specific nature. The highest good for humans is the complete and habitual exercise of the specifically human function—rationality. Rationality is exercised through the practice of two kinds of virtue, moral and intellectual. Aristotle emphasized the traditional Greek notion of moral virtue as the mean between extremes. Well-being (eudaemonia) is the pursuit not of pleasure (hedonism) but rather of the Good, a composite ideal, consisting of contemplation (the intellectual life) and, subordinate to that, engagement in politics (the moral life). In the Politics, Aristotle holds that, by nature, humans form political associations, and he explores the best forms these may take. For Aristotle's aesthetic views, which are set forth in the Poetics, see tragedy

.
Aristotelianism

After the decline of Rome, Aristotle's work was lost in the West. However, in the 9th cent., Arab scholars introduced Aristotle to Islam, and Muslim theology, philosophy, and natural science all took on an Aristotelian cast. It was largely through Arab and Jewish scholars that Aristotelian thought was reintroduced in the West. His works became the basis of medieval scholasticism

; much of Roman Catholic theology shows, through St. Thomas Aquinas, Aristotelian influence. There has also been a revival of Aristotelian influence on philosophy in the 20th cent. His teleological approach has continued to be central to biology, but it was banished from physics by the scientific revolution of the 17th cent. His work in astronomy, later elaborated by Ptolemy, was controverted by the investigations of Copernicus and Galileo.
Bibliography

See edition of his works by R. P. McKeon (1941); J. H. Randall, Aristotle (1960); G. E. R. Lloyd, Aristotle (1968); J. Barnes, Aristotle (1982); J. D. Evans, Aristotle (1987); J. Lear, Aristotle (1988); T. Irwin, Aristotle's First Principles (1989); A. M. Leroi, The Lagoon: How Aristotle Invented Science (2014).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
Aristotle (384-322 BC) major Greek philosopher and tutor of Alexander the Great, whose influence on European thinking has been extensive. This influence is seen in the development of natural science, of political science, within early anthropology and above all in PHILOSOPHY (including LOGIC and ETHICS). Aristotle studied at PLATO's academy in Athens, but, though influenced by Plato's IDEALISM, he is usually regarded as a representative of the EMPIRICIST wing of philosophy. Where relevant, his method of inquiry involved careful observation and reporting. On the other hand, he also initiated the systematic study of logic. In practice, therefore, reason and empiricism were combined in his work.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000

with my pleasure
zina antoaneta
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 4:10:54 AM

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[quote=Mehrdad77]

There is no education like adversity.

Benjamin Disraeli


Poverty doesn't bring unhappiness; it brings degradation.

George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)

















ibj_ldn
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 8:11:03 AM

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Fear nothing within you; all is wisdom, all is power, all is strength and understanding.
Dr. Mohammed Albadri
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 11:33:49 AM

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Aristotle is a great philosopher.
Bully_rus
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 1:58:28 PM
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Daemon wrote:
Education is an ornament in prosperity and a refuge in adversity.

Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC)

There are too many ornaments in prosperity...
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