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Nuremberg Laws Deprive German Jews of Citizenship and Civil Rights (1935) Options
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Nuremberg Laws Deprive German Jews of Citizenship and Civil Rights (1935)

Enacted in the early years of Adolf Hitler's rule, the Nuremberg Laws stripped Jews of German citizenship, prohibited them from marrying non-Jews, and forbade them to hire non-Jewish domestic servants. Supplementary decrees laid down the criteria for determining exactly who was legally Jewish. Punishments for violating the laws included fines, hard labor, and even death. Three years after the laws were announced, another law required Jews to adopt what middle names? More...
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 4:03:19 AM

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Nuremberg Laws
Also found in: Encyclopedia.
Nuremberg Laws
Title page of RGB I No. 100 proclaiming the laws. Issued 16.09.1935.

The Nuremberg Laws (German: Nürnberger Gesetze) of 1935 were antisemitic laws in Nazi Germany introduced at the annual Nuremberg Rally of the Nazi Party. After the takeover of power in 1933 by Hitler, Nazism became an official ideology incorporating antisemitism as a form of scientific racism. There was a rapid growth in German legislation directed at Jews and other groups, such as the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service which banned "non-Aryans" and political opponents of the Nazis, from the civil-service.

The lack of a clear legal method of defining who was Jewish had, however, allowed some Jews to escape some forms of discrimination aimed at them. The enactment of laws identifying who was Jewish made it easier for the Nazis to enforce legislation restricting the basic rights of German Jews.

The Nuremberg Laws classified people with four German grandparents as "German or kindred blood", while people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling, a crossbreed, of "mixed blood".[1] These laws deprived Jews of German citizenship and prohibited marriage between Jews and other Germans.[2]

The Nuremberg Laws also included a ban on sexual intercourse between people defined as "Jews" and non-Jewish Germans and prevented "Jews" from participating in German civic life. These laws were both an attempt to return the Jews of 20th-century Germany to the position that Jews had held before their emancipation in the 19th century; although in the 19th century Jews could have evaded restrictions by converting, this was no longer possible.

The laws were a legal embodiment of an already existing Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.
Background history
1935 chart from Nazi Germany used to explain the Nuremberg Laws

Before 1806, when general citizenship was largely non-existent in the Holy Roman Empire, its inhabitants were subject to different estate regulations. Varying from one territory of the Empire to another, these regulations classified inhabitants into different groups, such as dynasts, members of the court entourage, other aristocrats, city dwellers (burghers), Jews, Huguenots (in Prussia a special estate until 1810), free peasants, serfs, peddlers and Gypsies, with different privileges and burdens attached to each classification. Legal inequality was the principle.

The concept of citizenship was mostly restricted to cities, especially free imperial cities. There was no general franchise, which remained a privilege for the few, who inherited the status or acquired it when they reached a certain level of taxed income or could afford the expensive citizen's fee (Bürgergeld). Citizenship was often further restricted to city dwellers affiliated with the locally dominant Christian denomination (Calvinist, Catholic or Lutheran). City dwellers of other denominations or religions and those who lacked the necessary wealth to qualify as citizens were considered as mere inhabitants who lacked political rights and were sometimes subject to revocable staying permits.

Most Jews then living in German locales that allowed their settlement were automatically defined as mere indigenous inhabitants, depending on permits that were typically less generous than those granted to Gentile indigenous inhabitants. In the 18th century some Jews and their families (such as Daniel Itzig in Berlin) gained equal status with their fellow Christian city dwellers, but had a different status than noblemen, Huguenots, or serfs. They often did not enjoy the freedom of movement across territorial or even municipal boundaries, let alone enjoy the same status in the new place as in the old.

With the abolition of legal status differences in the Napoleonic era and its aftermath citizenship was established as a new franchise generally applying to all former subjects of the monarchs. While Jewish emancipation did not eliminate all forms of discrimination against Jews, who often remained barred from holding official positions with the State, such forms of discrimination were no longer the guiding principle for ordering society, but a violation of it. These restrictions were mostly abolished in the 1840s, in few smaller states as late as 1869.

In the mid-19th century, the fiercely anti-Semitic völkisch movement appeared in Germany. One of the major demands of the various völkisch groups had been the disemancipation of German Jews and banning sexual relations between those considered to be of the “Semitic race” and those considered to be of the “Aryan race”. In 1881, a petition presented to the German government by the völkisch groups demanding Jewish disemancipation and the banning of marriage and sexual intercourse between “Aryans” and “Jews” had collected over a million signatures. Reflecting the strength of the völkisch movement, from 1892 when the so-called Tivoli Program was adopted, the Conservative Party formally advocated disemancipation of German Jews.[3] In his best-selling 1912 book Wenn ich der Kaiser wär (If I were the Kaiser), Heinrich Class, the leader of one of the more powerful völkisch groups, the Alldeutscher Verband, urged that all German Jews be stripped of their German citizenship and be reduced to Fremdenrecht (alien status).[4] Class went on to urge in Wenn ich der Kaiser wär that Jews be totally excluded from all aspects of German life with Class recommending that Jews be forbidden to own land, hold public office, and to participate in journalism, banking, and the liberal professions.[4]

Within Germany, persecution of the Sinti and Roma (Gypsies) long preceded the Nazi regime. In 1899, Alfred Dillmann established the Central Office for Fighting the Gypsy Nuisance in Munich. This office collected information and the fingerprints of Gypsies. In 1926 in Bavaria, the ‘Law for the Combating the Gypsies, Travellers, and Work-Shy’ required the systematic registration of all Sinti and Roma, and sent Gypsies over 16 to workhouses for two years if they could not prove regular employment. The law prohibited Gypsies from "roam[ing] about or camp[ing] in bands," and this law became the national norm in 1929.[5][6]
Toward the Nuremberg Laws

After the First World War, the Jews of Germany were among the most assimilated in Western Europe, speaking German, as opposed to Yiddish, as their first language. Many were secular or atheistic[citation needed] and many had fought for Germany in the First World War.

The National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP), which had been founded in 1919 as an offshoot of the völkisch movement, adopted the movement's demands to disemancipate the Jews as its own.[7] Attacks on Jews started shortly after the Nazi assumption of power on 30 January 1933, when Adolf Hitler assumed the Chancellorship. The Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses, the first nationwide stage of the anti-Semitic campaign, began on 1 April 1933.

However, the völkisch demand for laws disemancipating Jews and banning sex or marriage between "non-Aryans" and "Aryans" were not immediately met. A dispute between the Interior Ministry and the NSDAP over the precise "racial" definition of a Jew, namely how many Jewish grandparents did one have to have to be considered Jewish, led to the entire process being hopelessly bogged down by 1935.[8]

The lack of a clear definition of who was a Jew confused efforts to enforce anti-Semitic laws and measures. The first Nuremberg law, nominally designed for the "prevention of the propagation of hereditary illness", did not attack Jews explicitly. Other laws claimed to preserve German blood and honour, but again were not specifically anti-Semitic.[9]

The original German Gypsy policy, as it was laid during the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, focused on integrating Gypsies into the “ordinary” German society. However, during the Nazi regime, the same theories that were behind the Nazi idea of the Jews as an anti-race, were used to deem Gypsies as an inferior race that was a danger to the survival of the German people and the purity of the German ‘blood’.[10]

In July 1933, under the "Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring" physicians sterilized an unknown number of Gypsies, part-Gypsies, and Gypsies in mixed marriages. Under the "Law against Dangerous Habitual Criminals" of November 1933, the police arrested many Gypsies along with others the Nazis viewed as "asocials", and "work shy", including prostitutes, beggars, chronic alcoholics, and homeless vagrants, and imprisoned them in concentration camps.[5]

During the spring and summer of 1935, many Alte Käm

with my pleasure
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 5:32:10 AM

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This is why the Nuremberg process was held in this city, as it seems. Commonplace revengefulness.
Posted: Friday, September 15, 2017 12:28:57 PM

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ChristopherJohnson wrote:
This is why the Nuremberg process was held in this city, as it seems. Commonplace revengefulness.

And your point is?

Are you insinuating that any court procedure involving criminals and their crimes is nothing but cheap revenge?

Please, open some history books. Nuremberg was infamous for more than the laws mentioned here.

I totally take back all those times I didn't want to nap when I was younger. (Anon)
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