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9-Month-Old Mary Stuart Is Crowned "Queen of Scots" (1543) Options
Daemon
Posted: Saturday, September 09, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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9-Month-Old Mary Stuart Is Crowned "Queen of Scots" (1543)

When King James V of Scotland died in 1542, his two sons had already died in infancy and his only surviving child—a daughter—was just a week old. The infant Mary Queen of Scots was crowned nine months later in an elaborate coronation at Stirling Castle, where she would spend her early years. Laden with regal robes, the tiny sovereign cried throughout the entire ceremony. Soon thereafter, King Henry VIII of England attacked Scotland in an attempt to force what to happen to Mary? More...
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Saturday, September 09, 2017 9:58:28 AM

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Mary I of Scotland
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Mary I of Scotland
Mary Stuart
Mary Stuart Queen.jpg
Portrait of Mary after François Clouet, c. 1559
Queen of Scots
Reign 14 December 1542 – 24 July 1567
Coronation 9 September 1543
Predecessor James V
Successor James VI
Regent James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran (1542–1554)
Mary of Guise (1554–1560)
Queen consort of France
Tenure 10 July 1559 – 5 December 1560
Spouse Francis II of France
m. 1558; dec. 1560
Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
m. 1565; dec. 1567
James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell
m. 1567; dec. 1578
Issue
James VI of Scotland and I of England
House House of Stuart
Father James V of Scotland
Mother Mary of Guise
Born 8 December 1542[1]
Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow
Died 8 February 1587 (aged 44)[2]
Fotheringhay Castle, Northamptonshire
Burial Peterborough Cathedral; Westminster Abbey
Signature
Religion Roman Catholic

Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart[3] or Mary I of Scotland, was queen regnant of Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567 and queen consort of France from 10 July 1559 to 5 December 1560.

Mary, the only surviving legitimate child of King James V of Scotland, was 6 days old when her father died and she succeeded to the throne. She spent most of her childhood in France while Scotland was ruled by regents, and in 1558, she married the Dauphin of France, Francis. He ascended the French throne as King Francis II in 1559, and Mary briefly became queen consort of France, until his death on 5 December 1560. Widowed, Mary returned to Scotland, arriving in Leith on 19 August 1561. Four years later, she married her first cousin, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, but their union was unhappy. In February 1567, his residence was destroyed by an explosion, and Darnley was found murdered in the garden.

James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, was generally believed to have orchestrated Darnley's death, but he was acquitted of the charge in April 1567, and the following month he married Mary. Following an uprising against the couple, Mary was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle. On 24 July 1567, she was forced to abdicate in favour of James, her one-year-old son by Darnley. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain the throne, she fled southwards seeking the protection of her first cousin once removed, Queen Elizabeth I of England. Mary had previously claimed Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics, including participants in a rebellion known as the Rising of the North. Perceiving her as a threat, Elizabeth had her confined in a number of castles and manor houses in the interior of England. After eighteen and a half years in custody, Mary was found guilty of plotting to assassinate Elizabeth, and was subsequently executed.
Childhood and early reign
Both Mary and her father were born at Linlithgow Palace.[4]

Mary was born on 8 December 1542 at Linlithgow Palace, Linlithgow, Scotland, to James V, King of Scots, and his French second wife, Mary of Guise. She was said to have been born prematurely and was the only legitimate child of James to survive him.[5] She was the great-niece of King Henry VIII of England, as her paternal grandmother, Margaret Tudor, was Henry VIII's sister. On 14 December, six days after her birth, she became Queen of Scots when her father died, perhaps from the effects of a nervous collapse following the Battle of Solway Moss,[6] or from drinking contaminated water while on campaign.[7]

A popular legend, first recorded by John Knox, states that James, hearing on his deathbed that his wife had given birth to a daughter, ruefully exclaimed, "It came with a lass, it will pass with a lass!"[8] His House of Stewart had gained the throne of Scotland by the marriage of Marjorie Bruce, daughter of Robert the Bruce, to Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland. The Crown had come to his family through a woman, and would be lost from his family through a woman. This legendary statement came true much later—not through Mary, whose son by one of her Stewart cousins became king, but through his descendant Anne, Queen of Great Britain.[9]

Mary was baptised at the nearby Church of St Michael shortly after she was born.[10] Rumours spread that she was weak and frail,[11] but an English diplomat, Ralph Sadler, saw the infant at Linlithgow Palace in March 1543, unwrapped by her nurse, and wrote, "it is as goodly a child as I have seen of her age, and as like to live."[12]

As Mary was an infant when she inherited the throne, Scotland was ruled by regents until she became an adult. From the outset, there were two different claims to the Regency: one from Catholic Cardinal Beaton, and the other from the Protestant Earl of Arran, who was next in line to the throne. Beaton's claim was based on a version of the late king's will that his opponents dismissed as a forgery.[13] Arran, with the support of his friends and relations, became the regent until 1554 when Mary's mother managed to remove and succeed him.[14]
Treaty of Greenwich
Coin of 1553: obverse, coat of arms of Scotland; reverse, royal monogram

King Henry VIII of England took the opportunity of the regency to propose marriage between Mary and his own son, Prince Edward, hoping for a union of Scotland and England. On 1 July 1543, when Mary was six months old, the Treaty of Greenwich was signed, which promised that at the age of ten Mary would marry Edward and move to England, where Henry could oversee her upbringing.[15] The treaty provided that the two countries would remain legally separate and that if the couple should fail to have children the temporary union would dissolve.[16] However, Cardinal Beaton rose to power again and began to push a pro-Catholic pro-French agenda, which angered Henry, who wanted to break the Scottish alliance with France.[17] Beaton wanted to move Mary away from the coast to the safety of Stirling Castle. Regent Arran resisted the move, but backed down when Beaton's armed supporters gathered at Linlithgow.[18] The Earl of Lennox escorted Mary and her mother to Stirling on 27 July 1543 with 3,500 armed men.[19] Mary was crowned in the castle chapel on 9 September 1543,[20] with "such solemnity as they do use in this country, which is not very costly" according to the report of Ralph Sadler and Henry Ray.[21]

Shortly before Mary's coronation, Scottish merchants headed for France were arrested by Henry, and their goods impounded. The arrests caused anger in Scotland, and Arran joined Beaton and became a Catholic.[22] The Treaty of Greenwich was rejected by the Parliament of Scotland in December.[23] The rejection of the marriage treaty and the renewal of the Auld Alliance between France and Scotland prompted Henry's "Rough Wooing", a military campaign designed to impose the marriage of Mary to his son. English forces mounted a series of raids on Scottish and French territory.[24] In May 1544, the English Earl of Hertford (later Duke of Somerset) raided Edinburgh, and the Scots took Mary to Dunkeld for safety.[25]

In May 1546, Beaton was murdered by Protestant lairds,[26] and on 10 September 1547, nine months after the death of Henry VIII, the Scots suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Mary's guardians, fearful for her safety, sent her to Inchmahome Priory for no more than three weeks, and turned to the French for help.[27]

The French king, Henry II, proposed to unite France and Scotland by marrying the young queen to his three-year-old son, the Dauphin Francis. On the promise of French military help, and a French dukedom for himself, Arran agreed to the marriage.[28] In February 1548, Mary was moved, again for her safety, to Dumbarton Castle.[29] The English left a trail of devastation behind once more and seized the strategic town of Haddington. In June, the much awaited French help arrived at Leith to besiege and ultimately take Haddington. On 7 July 1548, a Scottish Parliament held at a nunnery near the town agreed to a French marriage treaty.[30]
Life in France

with my pleasure
ChristopherJohnson
Posted: Saturday, September 09, 2017 2:26:44 PM

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That same Mary Stuart.
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