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Siaka Stevens (1905) Options
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Siaka Stevens (1905)

Almost immediately after being sworn in as prime minister of Sierra Leone in 1967, Stevens was overthrown in a coup. He was recalled from exile after another coup 13 months later. In 1971, he became the first president of Sierra Leone, and during his tenure he made Sierra Leone a single-party state. His administration was plagued by corruption and economic mismanagement, and despite economic and civil turmoil, he remained in office until his peaceful retirement in 1985. Who succeeded him? More...
KSPavan
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Siaka Stevens (1905)
Almost immediately after being sworn in as prime minister of Sierra Leone in 1967, Stevens was overthrown in a coup. He was recalled from exile after another coup 13 months later. In 1971, he became the first president of Sierra Leone, and during his tenure he made Sierra Leone a single-party state. His administration was plagued by corruption and economic mismanagement, and despite economic and civil turmoil, he remained in office until his peaceful retirement in 1985.
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Siaka Stevens
Also found in: Encyclopedia.
Siaka Stevens
Siaka Probyn Stevens
J.D.
1st President of Sierra Leone
In office
21 April 1971 – 28 November 1985
Preceded by Position created
Succeeded by Joseph Saidu Momoh
3rd Prime Minister of Sierra Leone
In office
26 April 1968 – 21 April 1971
Preceded by Sir Albert Margai
Succeeded by Position abolished
Leader of the All People's Congress (APC)
In office
1962 – 28 November 1985
Succeeded by Joseph Saidu Momoh
Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU)
In office
1 July 1980 – 24 June 1981
Preceded by Léopold Sédar Senghor
Succeeded by Daniel arap Moi
Mayor of Freetown
In office
May 1962 – 17 May 1966
Succeeded by Constance Cummings-John
Member of Parliament of Sierra Leone from Port Loko District
In office
May 1957 – 1958
Member of Parliament of Sierra Leone from Western Area Urban District
In office
1958–1962
Sierra Leone Protectorate Minister of Mines, Lands and Labour
In office
1951–1957
Member of the Sierra Leone Police Force
In office
1923–1930
Personal details
Born Siaka Probyn Stevens
August 24, 1905
Moyamba, Sierra Leone
Died May 29, 1988 (aged 82)
Freetown, Sierra Leone
Nationality Sierra Leonean
Political party All People's Congress (APC)
Spouse(s) Rebecca Stevens
Children eleven children:

Jongopie Stevens
Bockarie Stevens
James Stevens
Mabel Stevens
Michael Stevens
Ethna Stevens
Francess Stevens
Nemahum Stevens
Thelma Stevens
Alex Hindolo Stevens (deceased)
Kortu Stevens (Deceased)[1]

Alma mater Fourah Bay College, Ruskin College
Profession Trade unionist, police officer
Religion Christianity

Siaka Probyn Stevens (24 August 1905 – 29 May 1988) was the third prime minister of Sierra Leone from 1967 to 1971 and the first president of Sierra Leone from 1971 to 1985. Stevens is generally criticised for dictatorial methods of government in which many of his political opponents were executed, as well as for mismanaging the economy. On a positive note, he reduced the ethnic polarisation in the government of Sierra Leone by incorporating members of various ethnic groups into the government.

Stevens and his All People's Congress (APC) party won the closely contested 1967 Sierra Leone general elections over the incumbent Prime Minister Sir Albert Margai of the Sierra Leone People's Party (SLPP). In April 1971, Stevens made Sierra Leone a republic and he became the first President of Sierra Leone a day after the constitution had been ratified by the Parliament of Sierra Leone.

Stevens served as Chairman of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) from 1 July 1980 to 24 June 1981, and engineered the creation of the Mano River Union, a three-country economic federation of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea.

Stevens retired from office at the end of his term on 28 November 1985. After pressuring all other potential successors to step aside, he chose Major-General Joseph Saidu Momoh, the commander of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces, as his successor.
Early life

Siaka Probyn Stevens was born on August 24, 1905 in Moyamba, Moyamba District in the Southern Province of Sierra Leone to a Limba father and a Mende mother. Although born in Moyamba, Stevens was largely raised in Freetown. Stevens completed his primary education in Freetown and completed secondary school at Albert Academy in Freetown, before joining the Sierra Leone Police Force. From 1923 to 1930, Stevens rose to the rank of First Class Sergeant and Musketry Instructor.

From 1931 to 1946, he worked on the construction of the Sierra Leone Development Company (DELCO) railway, linking the Port of Pepel with the iron ore mines at Marampa. In 1943, he helped co-found the United Mine Workers Union and was appointed to the Protectorate Assembly in 1946 to represent worker interests. In 1947, Stevens studied lab

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raghd muhi al-deen
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Joseph Conrad
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Conrad, Joseph, 1857–1924, English novelist, b. Berdichev, Russia (now Berdychiv, Ukraine), originally named Jósef Teodor Konrad Walecz Korzeniowski. Born of Polish parents, he is considered one of the greatest novelists and prose stylists in English literature. In 1874, Conrad went to sea and later joined (1878) an English merchant ship, becoming (1884) a master mariner as well as a British citizen. Retiring from the merchant fleet in 1894, he began his career as a novelist, and all of his novels are written in English, an acquired language. His notable early works include The Nigger of the Narcissus (1897), Lord Jim (1900), and the novellas Youth (1902), Heart of Darkness (1902), and Typhoon (1903). The novels Nostromo (1904), The Secret Agent (1907), Under Western Eyes (1911), and Chance (1913) are regarded by many as Conrad's greatest works. Of his later works, Victory (1915) is the best known. He also collaborated on two novels with Ford Madox Ford

, The Inheritors (1901) and Romance (1903). Marked by a distinctive, opulent prose style, Conrad's novels combine realism and high drama. Their settings include nautical backgrounds as well as high society, and international politics. Conrad was a skilled creator of atmosphere and character; the impact of various situations was augmented by his use of symbolism. He portrayed acutely the conflict between non-western cultures and modern civilization. His characters exhibit the possibilities for isolation and moral deterioration in modern life.
Bibliography

See his complete works (26 vol., 1924–26); biographies by J. Baines (1960), F. M. Ford (1965), N. Sherry (1973, repr. 1997), F. R. Karl (1979), J. Meyers (1991), and J. Batchelor (1993); L. Davies et al., ed., The Collected Letters of Joseph Conrad (9 vol., 2008); studies by E. Said (1966), R. Curle (1968), J. A. Palmer (1968), B. Johnson (1971), N. Sherry (1971, 1980), and I. Watt (1980); bibliography by T. G. Ehrsam (1969).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

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