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Louis X of France (1289) Options
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Louis X of France (1289)

Louis the Stubborn became king of Navarre, a region in the north of Spain bordering France, upon the death of his mother, Joan of Navarre. Upon the death of his father, Philip IV, in 1314, he became king of France. His rule was short-lived. Following a game of tennis in 1316, he drank a large amount of wine and died from an unverified illness. He is remembered primarily for his concessions to the nobility. At the time of his death, his wife was pregnant with his heir. What happened to the child? More...
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Louis X of France
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Related to Louis X of France: Louis XI, Louis XIII of France, Louis XIV of France, Louis XV of France, Louis XVI of France
Louis the Quarreler
Louis X of France2.jpg
A contemporary picture from the Généalogie des rois de France'
King of France
Reign 29 November 1314 – 5 June 1316
Coronation 24 August 1315 (Reims)
Predecessor Philip IV
Successor John I
King of Navarre; Count of Champagne
Reign 4 April 1305 – 5 June 1316
Coronation 1 October 1307 (Pamplona)
Predecessor Joan I and Philip I
Successor John I
Born 4 October 1289
Paris, France
Died 5 June 1316 (aged 26)
Vincennes, Val-de-Marne, France
Burial Saint Denis Basilica
Spouse Margaret of Burgundy
Clementia of Hungary
Issue Joan II of Navarre
John I of France
House Capet
Father Philip IV of France
Mother Joan I of Navarre
Religion Roman Catholicism
French Monarchy
Direct Capetians
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg
Hugh Capet
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Gisèle, Countess of Ponthieu
Hedwig, Countess of Mons
Robert II

Robert II
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Hedwig, Countess of Nevers
Hugh Magnus, Rex Filius
Henry I
Adela, Countess of Flanders
Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

Henry I
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Philip I
Hugh, Count of Vermandois

Philip I
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Constance, Princess of Antioch
Louis VI
Cecile, Countess of Tripoli

Louis VI
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Philip, Rex Filius
Louis VII
Henry, Archbishop of Reims
Robert I, Count of Dreux
Constance, Countess of Toulouse
Philip, Archdeacon of Paris
Peter I, Lord of Courtenay

Louis VII
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Marie, Countess of Champagne
Alix, Countess of Blois
Marguerite, Queen of England and Hungary
Alys, Countess of the Vexin
Philip II
Agnes, Byzantine Empress

Philip II
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Louis VIII
Marie, Duchess of Brabant
Philip I, Count of Boulogne

Louis VIII
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Louis IX
Robert I, Count of Artois
Alphonse, Count of Poitou and Toulouse
Saint Isabelle
Charles I of Naples and Sicily

Louis IX
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Isabella, Queen of Navarre
Louis of France
Philip III
John Tristan, Count of Valois
Peter, Count of Perche and Alençon
Blanche, Infanta of Castile
Marguerite, Duchess of Brabant
Robert, Count of Clermont
Agnes, Duchess of Burgundy

Philip III
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Louis of France
Philip IV
Charles, Count of Valois
Louis, Count of Évreux
Blanche, Duchess of Austria
Margaret of France, Queen of England

Philip IV
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Louis X
Philip V
Charles IV
Isabella, Queen of England

Grandchildren

Edward III of England

Louis X
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Joan II of Navarre
John I

John I
Philip V
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Joan III, Countess of Burgundy
Margaret I, Countess of Burgundy
Isabella, Dauphine of Viennois

Charles IV
Fleur de lys (or).svg

Marie of France
Blanche, Duchess of Orléans

Louis X (4 October 1289 – 5 June 1316), called the Quarreler, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn (French: le Hutin), was a monarch of the House of Capet who ruled as King of Navarre (as Louis I Basque: Luis I.a Nafarroakoa) and Count of Champagne from 1305 and as King of France from 1314 until his death.

Louis was the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre. His short reign as king of France was marked by the hostility of the nobility against fiscal and centralization reforms initiated by Enguerrand de Marigny, the Grand Chamberlain of France, under the reign of his father. Louis' uncle—Charles of Valois, leader of the feudalist party—managed to convince the king to execute Enguerrand de Marigny.

Louis allowed serfs to buy their freedom (which was the first step towards the abolition of serfdom), abolished slavery, and readmitted French Jews into the kingdom.

In 1305, Louis had married Margaret of Burgundy, with whom he had Joan II of Navarre. Margaret was later convicted of adultery and died in prison, possibly murdered by strangulation. In 1315, Louis married Clementia of Hungary, who gave birth to John I of France a few months after the king's death. John's untimely death led to a disputed succession.

Personality, marriage and coronation
Louis being crowned with his second wife, Clementia of Hungary.

Louis was born in Paris, the eldest son of Philip IV of France and Joan I of Navarre.[1] He inherited the kingdom of Navarre on the death of his mother, on 4 April 1305, later being crowned 6 June 1313.[2] On 21 September 1305, at age 16, he married Margaret of Burgundy and they had a daughter, Joan. Louis was known as "the Quarreler" as the result of the tensions prevailing throughout his reigns.[3]

Both Louis and Margaret became involved in the Tour de Nesle affair towards the end of Philip's reign. In 1314, Margaret, Blanche and Joan—the latter two being the wives of Louis' brothers Charles and Philip, respectively—were arrested on charges of infidelity.[4] Margaret and Blanche were both tried before the French parliament later that year and found guilty. Their alleged lovers were executed, and the women had their hair shorn and were sentenced to life imprisonment.[4] Philip stood by his wife Joan, who was ultimately found innocent and released. Margaret would be imprisoned at Chateau Gaillard, where she died.[4]

On the death of his father in 1314, Louis became King of France. Margaret of Burgundy died on 14 August 1315 and Louis remarried five days later, on 19 August to Clementia of Hungary, the daughter of Charles Martel of Anjou and the niece of Louis' own uncle and close advisor, Charles of Valois. Louis and Clementia were crowned at Reims in August 1315.[5]
Domestic policy
Coat of arms

Louis was king of Navarre for eleven years and king of France for less than two years. His reign was dominated by continual feuding with the noble factions within the kingdom, and major reforms designed to increase royal revenues, such as the freeing of the French serfs and the readmittance of the Jews.

In 1315, Louis X published a decree proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on the French ground should be freed. This prompted subsequent governments to circumscribe slavery in the overseas colonies.[6] His Ordonnances des Roi de France, V, p.1311 declared that "as soon as a slave breathes the air of France, he breathes freedom"[7]
Regional leagues

By the end of Philip IV's reign opposition to the fiscal reforms was growing. With Philip's death and the accession of Louis, this opposition rapidly developed in more open revolt, some authors citing Louis' relative youth as one of the reasons behind the timing of the rebellions.[8] Leagues of regional nobles began to form around the country, demanding changes.[9] Charles of Valois took advantage of this movement to turn against his old enemy, Philip IV's former minister and chamberlain Enguerrand de Marigny and convinced Louis to bring corruption charges against him. When these failed, Charles then convinced Louis to bring sorcery charges against him instead, which proved more effective and led to de Marigny's execution at Vincennes in April 131

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