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Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II Is Excommunicated (1227) Options
Daemon
Posted: Friday, September 29, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II Is Excommunicated (1227)

Prior to being excommunicated the first of several times, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II had planned to go on a crusade. However, an epidemic waylaid him and a large part of his army, delaying the conquest. As a result, he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX. He eventually went on the postponed crusade and became king of Jerusalem. With Italy as the center of his power, Frederick, a religious skeptic, was in frequent conflict with the papacy. Frederick wrote the first book on what subject? More...
KSPavan
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Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II Is Excommunicated (1227)
Prior to being excommunicated the first of several times, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II had planned to go on a crusade. However, an epidemic waylaid him and a large part of his army, delaying the conquest. As a result, he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory IX. He eventually went on the postponed crusade and became king of Jerusalem. With Italy as the center of his power, Frederick, a religious skeptic, was in frequent conflict with the papacy.
ChristopherJohnson
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I did not know one could be excommunicated several times. I thought the excommunication was final and irreversible.
raghd muhi al-deen
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Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
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Frederick II
Frederick II and eagle.jpg
Holy Roman Emperor; King of Italy
Reign 22 November 1220 – 13 December 1250
Coronation 22 November 1220 (Rome)
Predecessor Otto IV
Successor Conrad IV
King of Germany
formally King of the Romans
Reign 1212–1220
Coronation 9 December 1212 (Mainz)
25 July 1215 (Aachen)
Predecessor Otto IV
Successor Henry (VII)
King of Sicily
Reign 1198–1250
Coronation 3 September 1198 (Palermo)
Predecessor Henry VI
Successor Conrad I
King of Jerusalem
Reign 1225–1228
Coronation 18 March 1229, Jerusalem
Predecessor Yolande
Successor Conrad II
Born 26 December 1194
Iesi, Marche, Italy
Died 13 December 1250 (aged 55)
Castel Fiorentino, Apulia, Italy
Burial Cathedral of Palermo
Spouse Constance of Aragon
Yolande of Jerusalem
Isabella of England
Bianca Lancia (?)
Issue Henry VII of Germany
Conrad IV of Germany
Henry Otto, Governor of Sicily
Margaret
Constance (Anna) of Nicaea
Manfred, King of Sicily
Violante, Countess of Caserta
Enzo of Sardinia
House House of Hohenstaufen
Father Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Constance, Queen of Sicily
Religion Roman Catholicism[1]

Frederick II (26 December 1194 – 13 December 1250) (German: Friedrich II, Italian: Federico II) was a Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily in the Middle Ages, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, and even to Jerusalem, were enormous. However, his enemies, especially the popes, prevailed, and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death.

Viewing himself as a direct successor to the Roman emperors of antiquity,[2] he was Emperor of the Romans from his papal coronation in 1220 until his death; he was also a claimant to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, and of Burgundy. At the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. His other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage and his connection with the Sixth Crusade.

He was frequently at war with the papacy, hemmed in between Frederick's lands in northern Italy and his Kingdom of Sicily (the Regno) to the south, and thus he was excommunicated four times and often vilified in pro-papal chronicles of the time and since. Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist.

Speaking six languages (Latin, Sicilian, German, French, Greek and Arabic[3]), Frederick was an avid patron of science and the arts. He played a major role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, from around 1220 to his death, saw the first use of a literary form of an Italo-Romance language, Sicilian. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and on what was to become the modern Italian language.[4]

He was also the first king who explicitly outlawed trials by ordeal as they were considered irrational.[5]

After his death, his line quickly died out and the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end.

Early years
The birth of Frederick II

Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Italy, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI. He was known as the puer Apuliae (son of Apulia).[6] Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a public square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin. Frederick was baptised in Assisi.[7][8]

In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans. His rights in Germany were disputed by Henry's brother Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy traveling towards Germany when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto. Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, Sicily, where he was crowned as King on 17 May 1198, now Frederick I of Sicily, at only three years of age.[8]

Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, and she established herself as regent. In Frederick's name she dissolved Sicily's ties to Germany and the Empire that had been created by her marriage, sending home his German counsellors and renouncing his claims to the German throne and empire.

Upon Constance's death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Frederick's guardian. Frederick's tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III.[9] However, Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henry's brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself and soon after invaded the Kingdom of Naples. In 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year later seized the young Frederick.[8] He thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, who kept Frederick under his control in the royal palace of Palermo until 1206. Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia, until, in 1208, he was declared of age. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, where local barons and adventurers had usurped most of the authority.[8]

with my pleasure
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