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Daemon
Posted: Friday, September 01, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Fairy Rings

Also known as pixie rings, fairy circles, and elf circles, fairy rings are naturally occurring rings or arcs of mushrooms found in forested areas or grasslands. The rings are formed when a spore grows underground and pushes out mycelia—fungal threads—in all directions, eventually producing a ring of mushrooms or a dark circle of grass. In English folklore, fairy rings were said to be caused by elves, fairies, or pixies dancing in a circle. What are some superstitions about fairy rings? More...
KSPavan
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Fairy Rings
Also known as pixie rings, fairy circles, and elf circles, fairy rings are naturally occurring rings or arcs of mushrooms found in forested areas or grasslands. The rings are formed when a spore grows underground and pushes out mycelia—fungal threads—in all directions, eventually producing a ring of mushrooms or a dark circle of grass. In English folklore, fairy rings were said to be caused by elves, fairies, or pixies dancing in a circle.
raghd muhi al-deen
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Fairy Ring
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to Fairy Ring: Fairy ring mushroom
"Elf ring" and "Fairy circle" redirect here. For the barren or desert grassland phenomenon, see Fairy circle (arid grass formation). For the Neolithic monument in Scotland, see Hjaltadans.
A fairy ring on a suburban lawn in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

A fairy ring, also known as fairy circle, elf circle, elf ring[1] or pixie ring, is a naturally occurring ring or arc of mushrooms.[2] The rings may grow to over 10 metres (33 ft) in diameter, and they become stable over time as the fungus grows and seeks food underground. They are found mainly in forested areas, but also appear in grasslands or rangelands. Fairy rings are detectable by sporocarps in rings or arcs, as well as by a necrotic zone (dead grass), or a ring of dark green grass. Fungus mycelium is present in the ring or arc underneath.

Fairy rings are the subject of much folklore and myth worldwide—particularly in Western Europe. While they are often seen as hazardous or dangerous places, they can sometimes be linked with good fortune.

Genesis

The mycelium of a fungus growing in the ground absorbs nutrients by secretion of enzymes from the tips of the hyphae (threads making up the mycelium).[2] This breaks down larger molecules in the soil into smaller molecules that are then absorbed through the walls of the hyphae near their growing tips.[2] The mycelium will move outward from the center, and when the nutrients in the center are exhausted, the center dies, thereby forming a living ring, from which the fairy ring arises.[2]

There are two theories regarding the process involved in creating fairy rings. One states that the fairy ring is begun by a spore from the sporocarpus. The underground presence of the fungus can also cause withering or varying colour or growth of the grass above. The second theory, which is presented in the investigations of Japanese scientists on the Tricholoma matsutake species, shows that fairy rings could be established by connecting neighbouring oval genets of these mushrooms. If they make an arc or a ring, they continuously grow about the centre of this object.
Necrotic or rapid growth zones
Two fairy rings marked by uneven grass growth (small one in foreground, much bigger one in background). The lush green arcs of grass betray the presence of underground fungal mycelia.
Fairy ring on a meadow

One of the manifestations of fairy ring growth is a necrotic zone—an area in which grass or other plant life has withered or died. These zones are caused by the mycelia which, during a very dry year, coat the roots of grasses and other herbs in meadows. After some time they are removed by biotic factors from the ground, at which stage a zone on the surface soil becomes visible. Patterns other than the basic ring or arc are also possible: circles, doubled arcs, sickle-shaped arcs, and other complicated formations are also formed by this process. Fungi can deplete the soil of readily available nutrients such as nitrogen, causing plants growing within the circle to be stressed which leads to plant discoloration. Some fungi also produce chemicals which act like hormones called gibberellins, which affect plant growth, causing rapid luxuriant growth.

Long-term observations of fairy rings on Shillingstone Hill in Dorset, England, further suggested that the cycle depended on the continuous presence of rabbits. Chalky soils on higher elevations in the counties of Wiltshire and Dorset in southern England used to support many meadow-type fairy rings. Rabbits crop grass very short in open areas and produce nitrogen-rich droppings. Mushrooms need more soil nitrogen than grass does. A ring can start from only a few spores from which the mycelium develops; the fruiting bodies of the mushrooms only appearing later, when sufficient mycelial mass has been generated to support them. Subsequent generations of fungi grow only outwards, because the parent generations have depleted their local nitrogen levels. Meanwhile, rabbits keep cropping the grass, but do not eat the fungi, allowing them to grow through their competition to tower, relatively, above the grass. By the time a circle of mushrooms reaches about 6 metres (20 ft) in diameter, rabbit droppings have replenished the nitrogen levels near the centre of the circle, and a secondary ring may start to grow inside the first.

Soil analysis of soil containing mycelium from a wood blewit (Clitocybe nuda) fairy ring under Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in southeast Sweden yielded fourteen halogenated low molecular weight organic compounds, three of which were brominated and the others chlorinated. It is unclear whether these were metabolites or pollutants. Brominated compounds are unknown as metabolites from terrestrial fungi.[3]

with my pleasure
ChristopherJohnson
Posted: Friday, September 01, 2017 2:47:58 PM

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Fungi.
monamagda
Posted: Friday, September 01, 2017 5:43:38 PM

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Fairies in various forms go as far back as Greek Mythology, where they were portrayed as nymphs and Sirens in Homer’s The Odyssey. The majority of the older fairy origins were believed to date back to Pre Christian beliefs in gods and goddesses. In Medieval times they were depicted as the stealer of Women and Children. The women were spirited away and made to nurse fairy children, and in due course a mirror image of the woman was left behind. When the fairy folk stole children they would leave behind a Changeling which in European Folklore describes the off spring of a fairy Elf or other legendary creature that was left in place of a human child. It was also believed this was made up to account for the various deformities and unusually sick children that were encountered during this period. In Puritan times the Fairies were considered Demons, and anyone said to be consorting with fairies would be tried as a witch and punished.

Often categorized as Supernatural or Preternatural, the best read on this subject is by renowned folklorist Robert Kirk, a Gaelic scholar best known for his treatise called The Secret Commonwealth. He was highly acclaimed in the subject of fairy folklore and his collection of supernatural tales are considered to be an important work in this field. Highly recommended!!

The Fairies are said to have the ability to move between the seen and unseen worlds becoming invisible at will. Signs of fairy realms were the presence of rings of mushrooms or toadstools which was said to appear after the fairies danced in delight in a circular motion.





Interestingly enough the book titled The Case of the Cottingley Fairies, by Joe cooper tells the story of two cousins who claimed to have interacted and photographed fairies, the environmental conditions were almost exactly the same as depicted in many books, even Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was willingly convinced that these fairy spirits were real and that it was not a hoax, this was never really proven as the photo editing back then was not really heard of, and many puzzled that if it was a hoax how was this done? This book is worth reading as its very entertaining. Let us know what you think about The Case of the Cottingley Fairies, was it real or a hoax???

Read more: https://thestrangersbookshelf.wordpress.com/2013/07/02/fairies-of-the-realms-part-one-introduction-and-their-environment/





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