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Cease-Fire Declared in Iran-Iraq War (1988) Options
Daemon
Posted: Sunday, August 20, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Cease-Fire Declared in Iran-Iraq War (1988)

On September 22, 1980, Iraqi forces invaded Iran, which was still struggling in the aftermath of its revolution. The resulting war—ostensibly a territorial dispute—turned into a bloody stalemate that saw the first widespread use of chemical warfare since World War I. An estimated 1.5 million people were killed in the conflict. After nearly eight years, the United Nations mandated a cease-fire. Both sides held thousands of prisoners of war for years. When were the last prisoners exchanged? More...
KSPavan
Posted: Sunday, August 20, 2017 1:42:10 AM

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Location: Kolkata, Bengal, India
This Day in History
Cease-Fire Declared in Iran-Iraq War (1988)
On September 22, 1980, Iraqi forces invaded Iran, which was still struggling in the aftermath of its revolution. The resulting war—ostensibly a territorial dispute—turned into a bloody stalemate that saw the first widespread use of chemical warfare since World War I. An estimated 1.5 million people were killed in the conflict. After nearly eight years, the United Nations mandated a cease-fire. Both sides held thousands of prisoners of war for years.
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Sunday, August 20, 2017 8:59:45 AM

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Joined: 4/19/2017
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Location: Baghdad, Mayorality of Baghdad, Iraq
Iran-Iraq War
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Iran-Iraq War
Iran–Iraq War
Part of the Persian Gulf Conflicts
Iran-Iraq War Montage.png
Clockwise from the top: Iranian soldiers wear gas masks to counter Iraqi chemical weapons; Iranian soldiers rejoice after Khorramshahr's liberation; Donald Rumsfeld and Saddam Hussein meet in Baghdad to discuss U.S. military aid to Iraq; Iranian oil platform burns after an attack by U.S. Navy in Operation Nimble Archer
Date 22 September 1980 – 20 August 1988
(7 years, 10 months, 4 weeks and 1 day)
Location Iran–Iraq border
Result Military stalemate

United Nations Security Council Resolution 598 passed, accepted by both Iraq and Iran

Territorial
changes Status quo ante bellum; observed by UNIIMOG based on Security Council Resolution 619
Belligerents
Iran
Supported by:
North Korea
China
Libya
Syria
Israel
United States(Iran-Contra Scandal)

Foreign groups:

Iraqi Shi'a volunteers1
Peshmerga

Iraq
Supported by:
China
United States
United Kingdom
Saudi Arabia
Soviet Union
France
Italy
West Germany
Kuwait
Jordan
SFR Yugoslavia
Qatar
United Arab Emirates
Egypt
Pakistan

Foreign groups:

People's Mujahedin of Iran (MKO)

Commanders and leaders
Ruhollah Khomeini
Supreme Leader of Iran

Abulhassan Banisadr
1st President of Iran
Mohammad-Ali Rajai †
2nd President of Iran
Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani
Chairman of the Parliament
Ali Khamenei
3rd President of Iran[1]
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Prime Minister of Iran
Mostafa Chamran †
Minister of Defence
Mohsen Rezaee
IRGC Commander
Ali Sayad Shirazi
Chief of Staff
Massoud Barzani
Leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party
Jalal Talabani
Leader of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Nawshirwan Mustafa
Deputy Secretary General of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim
Leader of the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq
Abdul Aziz al-Hakim
Saddam Hussein
President of Iraq

Ali Hassan al-Majid
General and Iraqi Intelligence Service head
Taha Yassin Ramadan
General and Deputy Party Secretary
Izzat Ibrahim ad-Douri
Deputy chairman, Revolutionary Command Council
Salah Aboud Mahmoud
General
Tariq Aziz
Foreign Minister and Revolutionary Command council member
Adnan Khairallah
Minister of Defence
Saddam Kamel
Republican Guard Commander
Uday Hussein
Son of Saddam Hussein
Qusay Hussein
Son of Saddam Hussein
Maher Abd al-Rashid
General
Massoud Rajavi
President of the National Council of Resistance of Iran
Maryam Rajavi
co-leader of PMOI
Strength
At the onset of the war: 110,000–150,000 soldiers,
1,000 tanks,
1,000 armoured vehicles,
300 artillery pieces,
320 aircraft,
750 helicopters
After Iraq withdrew from Iran in 1982: 350,000 soldiers,
700 tanks,
2,700 armoured vehicles,
400 artillery pieces,
350 aircraft,
700 helicopters
At the end of the war: 900,000 soldiers,
2,500,000 militia,
400 tanks,
800 armoured vehicles,
600 artillery pieces,
60–80 aircraft,
70–90 helicopters At the onset of the war: 350,000 soldiers,
6,500 tanks,
4,000 armoured vehicles,
800 artillery pieces,
600 aircraft,
350 helicopters
After Iraq withdrew from Iran in 1982: 175,000 soldiers,
1,200 tanks,
2,300 armoured vehicles,
400 artillery pieces,
450 aircraft,
180 helicopters
At the end of the war: 1,500,000 soldiers[citation needed],
5,500–6,700 tanks,
8,500–10,000 armoured vehicles,
6,000–12,000 artillery pieces,
1,500 aircraft,
1,000 helicopters
Casualties and losses
300,000–900,000 soldiers and militia killed[2][3][4]:3[5]

Economic loss of more than US$500 billion[4]:3
150,000–375,000 soldiers and militia killed[6]

Economic loss of more than $500 billion[4]:3
100,000+ civilians killed on both sides[3]
(not including 182,000 civilians killed in the Al-Anfal Campaign)[7]
¹ The exact number of Iraqi Shia that fought alongside Iran is unknown. The Iraqi political parties SCIRI and Islamic Da'wa Party supported Iran during the war. Iran would sometimes organise divisions of Iraqi POWs to fight against Iraq.
Iran–Iraq War

Iraqi invasion

Kaman 99 1st Khorramshahr Operation Sultan 10 Scorch Sword Abadan Morvarid

Stalemate (1981)

Dezful H3

Iranian offensive (1982)

Samen-ol-A'emeh Jerusalem Way Undeniable Victory Jerusalem (2nd Khorramshahr) Ramadan

Strategic stalemate (1983-1984)

Before the Dawn Dawn 1 Dawn 2 Dawn 3 Dawn 4 Dawn 5 Kheibar Dawn 6 Marshes Badr

Duel offensives (1985-1986)

Al-Anfal Campaign (Halabja) Dawn 8 (1st al-Faw) Mehran Karbala 4 Karbala-5 Karbala-6 Karbala Ten Nasr 4

Final stages

Beit-ol-Moqaddas 2 Zafar 7 Tawakalna ala Allah (2nd al-Faw) Forty Stars Mersad

Tanker War

Earnest Will Prime Chance Eager Glacier Nimble Archer Praying Mantis

International incidents

Operation Opera USS Stark incident Iran Air Flight 655 incident

Persian Gulf Wars

Iran-Iraq War (1980-88) (Tanker War) Gulf War (1990-91) Iraqi Kurdish/Shi'a uprisings (1991) Iraq no-fly zones conflict (1991-2003) Iraq missile strikes (1993) Iraq missile strikes (1996) Iraq bombing (1998) Iraq War (2003-11)

The Iran–Iraq War, also known as the First Persian Gulf War,[8][9][10][11][12] was an armed conflict between the Islamic Republic of Iran and the Republic of Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the 20th century's longest conventional war after the Second Sino-Japanese War.[13][14][note 1] It was initially referred to in English as the "Gulf War" prior to the Persian Gulf War of the early 1990s.[15]

The Iran–Iraq War began when Iraq invaded Iran via air and land on 22 September 1980. It followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority as well as Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of Iran's revolutionary chaos and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran and were quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive.[16]

Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with Resolution 598, a U.N.-brokered ceasefire which was accepted by both sides. At the war's conclusion, it took several weeks for Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honour pre-war international borders set by the 1975 Algiers Agreement.[17] The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.[16][18]

with my pleasure
TheParser
Posted: Sunday, August 20, 2017 10:34:22 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/21/2012
Posts: 4,591
Neurons: 21,588
The "experts" tell us that for many years Iraq was a buffer between Iran and the Arab countries.

Then President George W. Bush made the horrific mistake of invading and "conquering" Iraq.

Thus, the buffer disappeared, and now Iran is up to its eyeballs in Iraq and Syria. (Israel has reportedly warned Iran: "Don't mess with us, or you will be VERY sorry.")

Yes, Saddam was a brutal leader, but many people in Iraq yearn for the good old days of stability under him. Life was good -- so long as you kept your mouth shut. You know: Just as life is pretty good in the United States so long as you kowtow to the "liberals."

(Many people wish that the United States would act like Israel. In other words, the United States will not interfere in other countries' internal affairs, but if they threaten American security, watch out. You won't know what hit you!)

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