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Inaugural Games of the Flavian Amphitheater Options
Daemon
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Inaugural Games of the Flavian Amphitheater

In 80 CE, Roman Emperor Titus celebrated the completion of the Colosseum, then known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, with lavish games that lasted for more than 100 days. Though accounts of the events are scarce, the games likely featured gladiatorial combat and battle reenactments, executions staged as recreations of myths and historical events, and animal entertainment that included extravagant hunts and fights between different species. What exotic animals are said to have done battle? More...
KSPavan
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Inaugural Games of the Flavian Amphitheater
In 80 CE, Roman Emperor Titus celebrated the completion of the Colosseum, then known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, with lavish games that lasted for more than 100 days. Though accounts of the events are scarce, the games likely featured gladiatorial combat and battle reenactments, executions staged as recreations of myths and historical events, and animal entertainment that included extravagant hunts and fights between different species.
taurine
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Colosseum...
Still exist the ruins of the building built after looting the territory occupied by the people who didn't want to change their religion.
How many times did change religion, law and language people who call themselves Palestinians? In the past they were even Christians under the Byzantium rule.

My favourites are Syrians.
There was at least one Pope in the past who was borne in the family, long time living, where currently is Syria.
This is helpful while thinking about loyalty which can be bought.
Heaven in GermanyDrool
raghd muhi al-deen
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Inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre
Inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre
Though in ruins, the Flavian Amphitheatre, now known as the Colosseum, still stands today

The inaugural games of the Flavian Amphitheatre were held in AD 80, on the orders of the Roman Emperor Titus, to celebrate the completion of the Colosseum, then known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium). Vespasian began construction of the amphitheatre around AD 70, and it was completed by his son Titus soon after Vespasian's death in AD 79. After Titus' reign began with months of disasters – including the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, a fire in Rome, and an outbreak of plague – he inaugurated the building with lavish games which lasted for more than a hundred days, perhaps partially in an attempt to appease the Roman public and the gods.

Little documentary evidence of the nature of the games (ludi) remains. They appear to have followed the standard format of the Roman games: animal entertainments in the morning session, followed by the executions of criminals around midday, with the afternoon session reserved for gladiatorial combats and recreations of famous battles. The animal entertainments, which featured creatures from throughout the Roman Empire, included extravagant hunts and fights between different species. Animals also played a role in some executions which were staged as recreations of myths and historical events. Naval battles formed part of the spectacles but whether these took place in the amphitheatre or on a lake that had been specially constructed by Augustus is a topic of debate among historians.

Only three contemporary or near-contemporary accounts of the games survive. The works of Suetonius and Cassius Dio focus on major events, while Martial provides some fragments of information on individual entertainments and the only detailed record of a gladiatorial combat in the arena to survive to the present day: the fight between Verus and Priscus.
Background
Construction of the amphitheatre

Construction of the Colosseum started under Vespasian in an area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine hills. The site had been devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64 under the Emperor Nero and later redeveloped for his personal enjoyment with the construction of a huge artificial lake, Domus Aurea, and a colossal statue of himself.[1]

Vespasian started his own redevelopment of the site around AD 70 to 72, possibly funding the construction with booty seized after the Roman victory in the First Jewish-Roman War in AD 70. The lake was filled and the site designated as the location for the Flavian Amphitheatre. By reclaiming the land appropriated by Nero for the site for his amphitheatre, Vespasian at once made both a popular gesture and placed a symbol of his power at the heart of the city.[2] Gladiatorial schools (ludi) and other support buildings were later constructed within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea, much of which had been torn down.[3]

Vespasian died just before the amphitheatre was completed. The building had reached the third storey and Titus was able to finish construction of both the amphitheatre and adjacent public baths (which were to be known as the Baths of Titus) within a year of Vespasian's death.[3]
Reign of Titus
A bust of Titus

By the time the amphitheatre was completed, Titus's short reign had already endured a series of disasters: two months after he had succeeded Vespasian, Mount Vesuvius had erupted, destroying Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae, and Oplontis; a fire had burned in the city of Rome for three days and three nights causing substantial damage and destroying the Temple of Jupiter, recently restored by Vespasian; and there had been an outbreak of plague which was said to be the worst the city had ever endured.[4] To dedicate the amphitheatre and the baths, and probably in an attempt to mollify both the Roman public and the gods, Titus held lavish games which lasted for more than a hundred days.[5]
Sources

Little documentary evidence of the games remains; contemporary and near-contemporary writings mostly record the major details and concentrate on the opening days. The poet Martial gives the most complete and only truly contemporary account in the form of his De Spectaculis ("On the Spectacles"), a somewhat sycophantic series of epigrams detailing the individual events of the games as an illustration of Titus' power and benevolence. Much of the work is concerned with praising Titus, and there have been difficulties with authenticating, dating and translating various portions, but Martial does give details of events not covered by other sources and the only complete record of a gladiatorial combat in the arena to survive to the present day.[6]

The historian Suetonius was born in about AD 70 and started writing around AD 100. He was a child at the time of the games, but it is possible that he was born and raised in Rome, so he may have witnessed the inaugural games first-hand. His De Vita Caesarum (Lives of the Caesars, known also as The Twelve Caesars or Lives of the Twelve Caesars) probably completed around AD 117 to 127, includes some detail on the opening days of the games. Later in his history of Titus he reveals further information about the games. Suetonius' histories of the early Caesars have been criticised for being based on rumour and gossip rather than accurate historical sources, and he often reports from sources which contradict each other without attempting to analyse their quality or accuracy. However, he is generally regarded as a thorough scholar and has been praised for his balanced treatment of his subjects.[7]

The only other major source of information on the games is Cassius Dio who lived in the latter second and early third centuries. His History of Rome spans 80 books, many of which survive only as fragments, and took 22 years to complete. He is noted for his attention to detail in administrative affairs, but for major events his writing can be impressionistic, with a greater emphasis on his interpretation of the events' significance in the wider historical context than on facts and figures. His sources are varied: he relies on many of the major commentators but also seems to have paid close attention to public records. The sources for his account of the games of Titus are unknown.[8]
Animal entertainments

Animal entertainments formed a central part of the games and normally took place in the morning. Dio says that over the course of the inaugural games "animals both tame and wild were slain to the number of nine thousand; and women (not those of any prominence, however) took part in dispatching them."[9] Eutropius, who wrote in the later part of the fourth century, records that 5,000 animals were slain during the games.[10]

Dio and Martial record some of the animals that were exhibited. Dio notes a hunt involving cranes and another involving four elephants,[9] and Martial mentions elephants, lions, leopards, at least one tiger, hares, pigs,[a] bulls, bears, wild boar, a rhinoceros, buffalo and bison (most likely the wisent). Other exotic animals may have been used but are not mentioned; ostriches, camels and crocodiles were commonly used in the games.[11] Giraffes are unlikely to have been featured; Julius Caesar had brought a single giraffe to Rome in 46 BC and another is not recorded in Europe until the Medici giraffe in 1486.[12] Though they were first seen in Rome only in 58 BC,[11] and were impressive enough to be detailed in the games of Augustus and Commodus,[13] there is no mention of hippopotami at Titus' games.
This mosaic from Dar Buc Ammera villa (Zliten) and now in Jamahiriya Museum of Tripoli, Libya, depicts some of the entertainments that would have been offered at the games.

Martial reports a contest between an elephant and a bull, and the elephant, having won, knelt before Titus. This may have formed part of its training, but Martial attributed it to a spontaneous recognition of the Emperor's power.[14] He also mentions a bull enraged by the fires in the amphitheatre that tossed items around the arena before being killed by an elephant,[15] but there is nothing to suggest that these two epigrams detail the same fight—matches between different creatures were common, and in the span of a hundred days a match between an elephant and a bull may have occurred many times.[16]

From Martial's account it appears that some of the animals were uncooperative. Although he again casts the event as a demonstration of Titus' power to command the beasts, he mentions that the lions ignored their intended prey:[b]

...Caesar's lions are won over by their prey and the hare plays safely in the massive jaws.[17]

The rhinoceros, too, proved difficult to handle. It was initially paraded around the arena, but became infuriated and attacked a bull, to the apparent delight of the crowd.[18] Later, when it was supposed to fight, it had calmed down. Intended to face a company of men armed with spears and a host of other animals, it had to be goaded by "trembling trainers" until it would engage the other combatants:[c]

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