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Daemon
Posted: Wednesday, October 25, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Art Forgery

Forgeries have been part of the art market for more than 2,000 years and date back to Roman times, when sculptors created copies of Greek works. It has since become increasingly difficult to pass off forgeries as originals, as sophisticated new dating and analysis techniques threaten to expose even the most ingenious forgers. Some exposed forgers have gone on to sell their fakes as copies, gaining fame in their own right. What forger's works became so valuable that they themselves were forged? More...
KSPavan
Posted: Wednesday, October 25, 2017 1:22:35 AM

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Article of the Day
Art Forgery
Forgeries have been part of the art market for more than 2,000 years and date back to Roman times, when sculptors created copies of Greek works. It has since become increasingly difficult to pass off forgeries as originals, as sophisticated new dating and analysis techniques threaten to expose even the most ingenious forgers. Some exposed forgers have gone on to sell their fakes as copies, gaining fame in their own right.
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Wednesday, October 25, 2017 8:43:15 AM

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Location: Baghdad, Mayorality of Baghdad, Iraq

Art forgery
A City on a Rock. Long attributed to Goya, is now thought to have been painted by the 19th-century forger Eugenic Lucas. Elements of the painting appear to have been copied from autographed works by Goya, and the painting is therefore classified as a pastiche. Compare to Goya's May tree.

Art forgery is the creating and selling of works of art which are falsely credited to other, usually more famous artists. Art forgery can be extremely lucrative, but modern dating and analysis techniques have made the identification of forged artwork much simpler.

History
Forged self portrait of Albrecht Dürer.

Art forgery dates back more than two thousand years. Roman sculptors produced copies of Greek sculptures. Presumably the contemporary buyers knew that they were not genuine. During the classical period art was generally created for historical reference, religious inspiration, or simply aesthetic enjoyment. The identity of the artist was often of little importance to the buyer.

During the Renaissance, many painters took on apprentices who studied painting techniques by copying the works and style of the master. As a payment for the training, the master would then sell these works. This practice was generally considered a tribute, not forgery, although some of these copies have later erroneously been attributed to the master.

Following the Renaissance, the increasing prosperity of the middle class created a fierce demand for art. Near the end of the 14th century, Roman statues were unearthed in Italy, intensifying the populace’s interest in antiquities, and leading to a sharp increase in the value of these objects. This upsurge soon extended to contemporary and recently deceased artists. Art had become a commercial commodity, and the monetary value of the artwork came to depend on the identity of the artist. To identify their works, painters began to mark them. These marks later evolved into signatures. As the demand for certain artwork began to exceed the supply, fraudulent marks and signatures began to appear on the open market.

During the 16th century, imitators of Albrecht Dürer's style of printmaking added signatures to them to increase the value of their prints. In his engraving of the Virgin, Dürer added the inscription "Be cursed, plunderers and imitators of the work and talent of others".[1] Even extremely famous artists created forgeries. In 1496, Michelangelo created a sleeping Cupid figure and treated it with acidic earth to cause it to appear ancient. He then sold it to a dealer, Baldassare del Milanese, who in turn sold it to Cardinal Riario of San Giorgio who later learned of the fraud and demanded his money back. However Michelangelo was permitted to keep his share of the money.[2][3]

The 20th-century art market has favored artists such as Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Klee and Matisse and works by these artists have commonly been targets of forgery. These forgeries are typically sold to art galleries and auction houses who cater to the tastes of art and antiquities collectors; at time of the occupation of France by German forces during World War II, the painting which fetched the highest price at Drouot, the main French auction house, was a fake Cézanne.[4]
Forgers

There are essentially three varieties of art forger. The person who actually creates the fraudulent piece, the person who discovers a piece and attempts to pass it off as something it is not, in order to increase the piece’s value, and the third who discovers that a work is a fake, but sells it as an original anyway.[5]

Copies, replicas, reproductions and pastiches are often legitimate works, and the distinction between a legitimate reproduction and deliberate forgery is blurred. For example, Guy Hain used original molds to reproduce several of Auguste Rodin's sculptures. However, when Hain then signed the reproductions with the name of Rodin's original foundry, the works became deliberate forgeries.
Artists

Strand von Ste. Adresse, 1863, by Johan Barthold Jongkind.

Skating in Holland, 1890-1900, signed "Jongkind" in the lower left hand corner, but is actually a forgery by an unknown author.


with my pleasure
ChristopherJohnson
Posted: Wednesday, October 25, 2017 3:04:52 PM

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Some are indistinguishable from originals.
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