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Profile: Kurigrama
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User Name: Kurigrama
Forum Rank: Advanced Member
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Joined: Sunday, November 03, 2013
Last Visit: Sunday, June 01, 2014 9:25:39 AM
Number of Posts: 128
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  Last 10 Posts
Topic: The maximum energy that electrons in a solid will contain
Posted: Sunday, June 01, 2014 5:17:26 AM
The maximum energy that electrons in a solid will contain in order to avoid having identical energy levels.


Could someone please paraphrase the bold part?
Topic: the closest scientists have come thus far to creating
Posted: Saturday, May 31, 2014 6:49:30 AM
Hi, RamufAznag. Thank you for pointing out my inertial typo. Actually I typed "there" but in my mind it was "their".
Topic: the closest scientists have come thus far to creating
Posted: Saturday, May 31, 2014 5:44:41 AM
if there current discovery is the closet to the perfectly dark material then what does "closet scientist" mean?
Topic: the closest scientists have come thus far to creating
Posted: Saturday, May 31, 2014 5:22:12 AM
Researchers have recently discovered that a microscopic “forest” of vertically aligned single-wall carbon nanotubes of varying heights applied to a surface has extremely low reflectance across a wide range of wavelengths of visible light, the closest scientists have come thus far to creating a perfectly dark material.

Could someone please paraphrase the bold part?
Topic: began streaming unimpeded
Posted: Friday, May 30, 2014 2:32:08 PM
Why does the cosmic microwave background exist and permeate all of space? Just an instant after the Big Bang, all matter in the universe was so energetic, or hot, that it existed as free particles known as “quarks.” In the fractions of a second following, the universe expanded and cooled until the quarks lost enough energy to form electrons, protons, and neutrons, the building blocks of ordinary matter. Photons, the smallest particles of light, also filled the universe and were so energetic that they “bounced” off electrons, keeping the electrons and protons from forming atoms. After approximately 400,000 more years, the photons lost enough energy that atoms could form readily. Without any lone electrons off of which photons could “bounce,” the photons began streaming unimpeded all through the universe, mostly unchanged but for one exception.

Could someone please explain "began streaming unimpeded"?

What is the role of "for" in the meaning?
Topic: Ever-present in Jamaican folklore and storytelling
Posted: Friday, May 30, 2014 12:17:22 PM
Ever-present in Jamaican folklore and storytelling is the character of the trickster Anansi, an African spider-god who regularly outsmarts other animal-god characters.

1. Does "outsmarts" mean "to take advantages"?
2. What is animal-god character?
Topic: indeed, malfunctions in molecular players that
Posted: Thursday, May 29, 2014 2:55:06 PM
Cells employ many strategies to avoid genetic mutation. From the high fidelity of DNA-synthesizing enzymes to the pro-death signaling that accompanies mutagenic stimuli such as UV radiation, cellular mechanisms that stymie genetic changes are ubiquitous throughout the natural world. These mechanisms are critical because widespread genomic changes would wreak physiological havoc; indeed, malfunctions in molecular players that safeguard against mutagenesis, such as the protein p53, have been implicated in diseases such as cancer.

Yet despite the criticality of preventing and eliminating DNA mutations to avoid deleterious changes in cells, in specific contexts many organisms have also adapted beneficial mechanisms to induce genetic changes.

What is being said in the bold part and what is the similarity with the earlier part of the sentence?
Topic: viewing it as the product of a nature long surpassed by human ingenuity
Posted: Thursday, May 29, 2014 9:04:10 AM
Naturalism, arising in the 19th century as a literary response to Darwin’s account of evolution, focused on describing everyday reality but differed from realism in its attempts to provide a “scientific” foundation for its depictions of characters, stressing the influence of environment and heredity upon the individual psyche. Émile Zola, in particular, saw his craft an extension of the scientific method into the domain of art. The 19th century, perhaps in opposition to naturalism, saw the rise of the Decadent movement, embracing artifice over nature in their writing, championed by Zola’s erstwhile protégé, Joris-Karl Huysmans. The protagonist of his masterpiece, Á rebours(literally, Against the Grain, but more commonly translated as Against Nature), removes himself from society—viewing it as the product of a nature long surpassed by human ingenuity—and surrounds himself exclusively with art, perfume, literature, and technology.


What does "it" refer to?
What is being said in the red part?
Topic: Ever-present in Jamaican folklore and storytelling
Posted: Wednesday, May 28, 2014 1:52:00 PM
Thank you, IMcRout.
Topic: if co-dependencies were common to two families
Posted: Wednesday, May 28, 2014 12:21:47 PM
They found that the co-dependencies in word-order change varied among families, suggesting that each family has evolved its own rules. Moreover, if co-dependencies were common to two families, there was evidence that they had separate origins within each family, thus yielding no evidence of family-invariant rules.


Does the bold part signal that "if the co-dependencies were not common to two families, there was evidence that they had same origins within each family?"

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