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Profile: leonAzul
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User Name: leonAzul
Forum Rank: Advanced Member
Occupation: musician, computer consultant
Interests: reading, bicycling, taijiquan
Gender: None Specified
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Joined: Thursday, August 11, 2011
Last Visit: Monday, May 29, 2017 6:49:41 AM
Number of Posts: 7,874
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  Last 10 Posts
Topic: I got up at 4:30 a.m. so that I caught the earliest bus to go to work.
Posted: Saturday, May 27, 2017 3:40:55 AM
Maggie Q wrote:
a) I got up at 4:30 a.m. so that I caught the earliest bus to go to work.

b) I got up at 4:30 a.m. so that I could catch the earliest bus to go to work.

c) I got up at 4:30 a.m. ( in order ) to catch the earliest bus to go to work.

d) I got up at 4:30 a.m. so that I would catch the earliest bus to go to work.

e) I got up at 4:30 a.m. in order that I could catch the earliest bus to go to work.

Question: Which one is natural / correct to native speakers?



Examples b) and c) sound most natural to my ear.

Example d) would make sense in the context of describing a habitual wake-up time as in, "I got up at 4:30 a.m. during the summers so that I would catch the earliest bus to go to work."

Examples a) and e) are not exactly wrong, they just sound awkward to me.

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: SUCH THAT
Posted: Saturday, May 27, 2017 3:26:57 AM
D00M wrote:
Hello respected teachers,

Speech communities can demonstrate resilience when a sense of pride is restored to them such that elders are heard and youth can continue to speak.

Is 'such that' a conjunction? What does it mean?



The phrase "such that" sets up a causal relationship between a condition and a result. In this example, communities that are created to facilitate speaking promote better communication among the members, especially across different age groups.



"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: Wht is "small meal"?
Posted: Saturday, May 27, 2017 3:14:34 AM
QP wrote:
Dear all,

I get confused on the following words:-

Light meal?

Small meal?

Do both of them mean "lunch meal"?.


Thank you
QP



Each of these phrases refers only to the size of the portion, not the time of day when the meal is eaten.

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: would
Posted: Friday, May 26, 2017 12:15:35 AM
mcurrent wrote:
I have a problem in my text yet.
May be someone can help me understand what fun or groove is in the "Would you two get older so you can do this?"?


If they are old enough to legally operate ATVs, then obviously they are physically capable of setting a table, and in most households they would be expected to help at dinner time. However, in most of the USA there are laws that require children under the age of sixteen to attend school, and this limits their eligibility for employment. As the text indicates, Mr. Crumpus was smiling when he made this remark, because it is quite likely that by the time they finish their education and are available to work, he too will be older and ready to retire.

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: Are the directions for the exercise correct?
Posted: Thursday, May 25, 2017 10:34:44 PM
DavidLearn wrote:
Is the red comma also appropriate?


There is no single authority for this question, but rather influential arbiters of style.

The guidelines for effective punctuation involve making the written language clear in meaning while making an attractive appearance on paper or screen.

I would reckon that most style guides consider double punctuation to be confusing and ugly, therefore I would suggest the following:

Rewrite “Despite having a reputation for serving unhealthy food, most fast food restaurants now offer healthy options such as salads or fresh food,” using other words instead of the red ones.

Audiendus has made a better suggestion to rewrite the sentence such that the quoted matter is at the end, and the full stop can serve to finish the clause as well as the sentence.

Using other words instead of the red ones, please rewrite the following sentence: “Despite having a reputation for serving unhealthy food, most fast food restaurants now offer healthy options such as salads or fresh food.”

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: 'Personal titles' and 'job titles'
Posted: Friday, May 19, 2017 9:25:25 PM
A cooperator wrote:


If the person works for a university, then I type in the office field, "the college name" he/she works at, and in the company field, I type in the university name.



That is not a bad way to think of it, although if you can add customized fields, the equivalent for a university for multiple offices would be multiple campuses.

Not every field needs to be filled in, and most universities include the campus in the name — the University of California at Los Angeles, or UCLA, for example — so I would just leave that blank.

Besides, unless you are selling text books, keeping track of who is at which campus probably isn't all that important. Whistle

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: 'Personal titles' and 'job titles'
Posted: Thursday, May 18, 2017 12:47:44 PM
A cooperator wrote:


What is the difference between 'job title' and 'speciality'?


You generally have the right ideas about the differences. There are some things about American corporate culture that might need further explanation. I would not assume that all of what I suggest is customary anywhere else in the world.

The phrase 'job title' always refers to name of the position someone holds in an organization. This may or may not include a description of the specialty or the department in which one works. It typical refers to the level of responsibility, such as 'officer', 'manager', 'supervisor', 'operator', 'representative', 'assistant', etc.

There are differences between executive, managerial, and operative. If I might make a joke, executives dream it up, managers assign the tasks, and operatives get them done. Whistle How this is reflected in the typical job title will depend on the type of business. As your own examples suggest, the way a university is organized will be very different from a milk bottling plant, a lumber store, or an automobile body shop.

The type and size of the organization will also determine what, if any, 'departments' exist.

I assume this is for a contact sheet or address book, in which case the field 'Office' refers to the geographical location for a company with multiple offices in different places.

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: Swami Satchidananda
Posted: Thursday, May 18, 2017 11:28:58 AM
Alice Coltrane ft. Pharoah Sanders - Journey In Satchidananda

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: jesus'
Posted: Wednesday, May 17, 2017 12:32:56 AM
keepyy wrote:
and while Adam was sleeping, the lord took out one of his ribs and formed the woman, a suitable partner of his own kind. the man and the woman were both naked, but why are they not embarrassed?


Because as the first carpenter, Eve was too busy making Adam's banana stand.
Think

"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."
Topic: Is Atheism Evolutionarily Unstable?
Posted: Tuesday, May 16, 2017 2:09:25 AM
Epiphileon wrote:
leonAzul wrote:


What seems to my mind to be essential to the human experience is faith.


d'oh! d'oh! d'oh! Johny Cash, seriously?Dancing
The underlined statement is a topic worth its own discussion, it is an interesting idea, I perceive some resonance with it, though it seems to me faith is not quite the right term, but I admit to not focusing on it at the moment, I do think it is a needed discussion though.


Yeah, I went there. Dancing

Yet on consideration, I would like to amend that:

What seems to my mind to be an essential part of the human experience is faith.

That is not intended to support my assertion, but rather to clarify it better.

What I am referring to here is the sort of conviction and expectation of success that gives a person or society a fighting chance, and is the opposite of what in modern parlance would be a depressive state of mind. I definitely do not intend the sort of equivocation that would include self-righteousness and xenophobia. I concede that point verges on the psychological, which was not a part of your original thesis, yet to the extent that it elucidates (not supports) my conjecture it is germane.

Epiphileon wrote:
leonAzul wrote:
I consider what is called religion to be proto-psychology. As a thesis, I would like to suggest that what has evolved as religion was based on observations of human behavior, and subsequently codified as dogma.


While I do not think that was the root cause of religion, it would definitely have been a factor in the coevolutionary process; regardless however, I think whatever the case may be, this would have been ancillary to the specific dynamic I am proposing.

Agreed; I didn't intend to convince anyone or derail the topic, merely to illustrate and clarify my ideas.

Epiphileon wrote:
leonAzul wrote:
From this point of view, the question could be better formed as Jean-Paul Sartre put it: is it good faith or bad faith? Does the faith bring us collectively forward, or does it merely keep us treading water, or even worse drowning in our own shit?

I think the answer to both those questions is definitely the latter.

Perhaps that was too flippant. As articulated above, I am not referring to any particular credo, but rather to the more abstract notion of having a point of view, knowing what it is, and hopefully understanding its limitations.

Totally off-topic, this reference might be of interest:

The surprising truth of open defecation in India | Sangita Vyas | TEDxWalledCity

Please watch critically: TED Talks are intended to present topics and should never be accepted as formal theses. Think

This just happens to be a recent exposition of what happens when a stabilizing influence on a given society becomes disconnected from the original metaphorical and meaningful codification and descends into dogma and superstition. Please see below.

Epiphileon wrote:
leonAzul wrote:
In other words, is it the social cohesion which religion has afforded due to theistic belief, or is it just the cohesion which is evolutionarily significant?Think

I think that the roots of religions began before the aspect of contributing to social cohesion became one of the adaptive characteristics that promoted their growth.

I would respectfully disagree. The evolutionary advantage of cooperative cohesion, along with competition, already has existed in coral, lichen, and many other examples of symbiotic relationships in the natural history of life for many eons. From this perspective, behavioral entrainment by "propagation of the faith" post partum is no less significant than the behavioral repertoire afforded by a particular genome.

Epiphileon wrote:
The tribal groups of hunter-gatherers did not possess an authority structure to facilitate groups much larger than 30-40, I think. So I'm thinking the social cohesion is primarily evolutionarily significant, and that religions became the path of least resistance to developing and sustaining it.

I'm listening.
Epiphileon wrote:
One of the aspects of my proposal is that this resulted, in the development on the cultural side of the coevolutionary dynamic, of a selective pressure for belief, or perhaps not even belief per say, but a reliance on religious type structure. This would certainly help explain the type of religious extremism that is evident in parts of the world today.

I would express this with slightly different emphasis, owing no doubt to my different experience.

The authority structures that promoted survival are the ones we are still aware of. It might seem trivial, but if something does not survive long enough to be perceived, it isn't.

The actual moment when religion emerged as a feature of human society is a difficult question best left to paleo-anthropologists, although well-evidenced conjectures are always welcome. I think we are "on the same page" when I observe that direct evidence is only hoped for, testable hypotheses desirable, and theses that can be demonstrated to have better than average power of prediction the best we can expect. If only they could prove to be adaptive Pray

Pascal's Wager is not so much a sop to politically institutionalized religion, as an accurate expression of the oldest survival strategy of all: it is less harmful to imagine a threat that is not there, than to not observe a threat that is there.

As to the rabid religiosity evident in the world today, please see my comments above concerning dogma and superstition. It is widely off-topic, yet one of the most trenchant observers of this class of phenomena was Eric Hoffer, as articulated in his book The True Believer.

Forgive me, there have been several online edits to provide links that explicate what I am talking about. Anxious


"Make it go away, Mrs Whatsit," he whispered. "Make it go away. It's evil."

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