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Joined: Thursday, July 8, 2010
Last Visit: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 3:02:07 PM
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Topic: For Hope123 (and anyone interested) - Some unusual history
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 2:33:06 PM
Yes, the Earl Of Warwick - Warwick the Kingmaker. The title says it all!

I know of at least one American actor with the name 'Warrick' - or maybe 'Worrick' - as well as the standard Warwick. One of many examples of strange pronunciation being standardised by emigration to America.

Well, for additional bizarre history you can have the Duke of Berwick.

Quote:
Duke of Berwick (/ˈbɛrɪk/) (Spanish: Duque de Berwick) is an Anglo-Spanish title that was created in the Peerage of England on 19 March 1687 for James FitzJames, the illegitimate son of King James II and Arabella Churchill. The title's name refers to the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed in England, near the border with Scotland. The titles of Baron Bosworth and Earl of Tinmouth were created at the same time, and they are subsidiary to the dukedom.


You know that thread about King James being chased out of England for being too Catholic..... too friendly with the enemies of England in France and Spain? He made his illegitimate son the Duke of Berwick. Then when he was deposed his son forfeited the title of Duke of Berwick but it was still recognised in Catholic France (where he went into exile) and Spain (who still hoped to place a Catholic on the English throne).

Quote:
Nevertheless, the titles were recognized in France as de facto Jacobite peerages by King Louis XIV, to please the exiled King James II & VII, along with other Jacobite peerages recognized in France, like Duke of Perth, Duke of Melfort, etc. On 13 December 1707, King Philip V confirmed or issued the title in Spain, and he conferred the dignity of Grandee of Spain on James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick. The grandeeship is attached to the Spanish title of Duke of Berwick.


So now the Duke of Berwick is a Spanish title, as well as an English one.

Because of the different succession laws in the two countries, they are held by two different people.
You can see by the names - Fitz (illegitimate) James Stuart is ancestral to both of them.
But you can also see they are now completely Spanish!

Quote:
Creation date 1687
Monarch James II

Peerage of England
Peerage of Spain
First holder James FitzJames

Present holder Jacobo Hernando Fitz-James Stuart y Gómez (English peerage)
Carlos Fitz-James Stuart y Martínez de Irujo (Spanish peerage)

Remainder to the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten (English peerage)
the 18th Duke's heirs, both male or female (Spanish peerage)
Subsidiary titles
Baron Bosworth
Earl Tinmouth
Seat(s) Liria Palace


The ducal seat, the Liria Palace/ Palacio de Lirio, is in Madrid.


Weird or what! Whistle






Topic: For Hope123 (and anyone interested) - Some unusual history
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 1:25:42 PM
-wick is an extremely common place name because in various forms it means everything from village, dwelling, to market, to harbour. So everything from Gatwick (goat farm) to Chiswick (cheese market - dairy cows in meadows along the Thames), Berwick (barley farm), to Warwick (settlement by the wier) to Prestwick (priest farm). Lerwick - (clay inlet). In several places you also have villages called Wickwick - settlement outside a village.
Also -wich - Norwich - north market town. Sandwich - sandy place.
In Dutch Wijk aan Zee - wick-on-sea
then going north you have -vik in Norse - Narvik - ship inlet. Reykjavík - smoking bay. Eoforwīċ/(Yorvik) > York.

The w is normally silent - lerrick, berrick, chizzick, worrick

But it can be pronounced, - Gatwick was not a village name - Gatwick was the landowner from way back in 1241. Maybe they call the airport Gat-wick so travellers who don't know about the silent w can pronounce it! Whistle



Topic: Is "embrace it" correctly used in the sentence?
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 12:48:14 PM
Yes, here I think you could have either 'it' (Myoho-Renge-Kyo) or 'them' (the five characters).

I am not so sure about 'characters'. I know English is not best at expressing some of these concepts, and sometimes an English word is given a specific meaning in this context, but 'characters' seems an odd choice of word here.
Topic: degenerate rock
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 3:59:46 AM
The term 'degenerate' on its own is an old-fashioned term for people who live a bad lifestyle (drink, smoke, defy authority, and, god forbid, have sex! Whistle )

But 'rock' has no connection to that.

There is rock music, so music that is rock and encourages degenerate behaviour could be called degenerate rock. But not a person.

In fact, calling a person a rock is a great compliment - it means they are completely dependable, loyal, strong, and will always support you.
Topic: a man he didn't know how to deal with
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 3:53:39 AM
That 'clause within a clause' feels very clumsy. But otherwise, these are fine.

There is no need for the extra 'how' clause though.
In these examples, you would express the idea more simply.

He has yet to come across a situation he can't handle.

Because to handle a situation is to figure out what to do, so 'figure out how to handle' is redundant.

He has yet to come across a problem he can't solve.

Because again, to solve something is to find a solution to it. The 'find out how to solve' is redundant.


c. He has never met a man he couldn't deal with.

If you don't know how to do something, you can't do it. Using the longer version is unnecessary.

. He has never met someone he couldn't find a way to deal with.
That one you might keep, because there is no additional clause inside the clause. It is still a bit clumsy, but if you really want to emphasise he can find a way, rather than just deal with someone, then that is OK.
Topic: Un vs non prefix
Posted: Wednesday, October 17, 2018 3:45:41 AM
It is hard, but as a general rule, un- is the opposite of an adjective which is a past participle or has a suffix like -ful -ly, -able, -al

Helpful, unhelpful. Friendly, unfriendly. Opened, unopened. Cooked, uncooked. Sent, unsent. Sustainable, unsustainable. Intentional, unintentional.

It is used in exactly the same way as the normal adjective, it is just the opposite.
He is friendly, he is unfriendly. He gave helpful advice. He gave unhelpful advice.

or the opposite of a verb

do, undo. fasten, unfasten.

Whereas non- is the negative of an adjective - ie not __ and works with present participles and other adjectives where you are stressing it is not something
a working model, a non-working model. Functional, non-functional. Viable, non-viable.

You would not say 'non-friendly' or 'non-open'.


There is no such adjective as 'stick'. You don't have a stick pan.
So this is just a constructed adjective with the not emphasised.
A pan where food does not stick is a non-stick pan.

There are two verbs - to stick and to unstick. To stick is to attach to something, and to unstick is to release from something. That is the opposite action. You stick things together, and you unstick them when you take them apart.
But non-stick is the negative - it does not stick

A model that is not a working model is an non-working model.
An embryo that is not viable is non-viable.

Of course it is not as simple as that - a lot of it is just meeting the word for the first time and learning that that is the way it is expressed - like any word.
Topic: If you liked Twister, you'll love Typhoon!
Posted: Tuesday, October 16, 2018 8:59:41 PM
No, these are proper names, capital letters with no articles. The only way to understand this is as film titles.





It's like saying
If you liked Rocky, you'll love Rocky II.


I have no idea why it appeared in a listing for 'typhoon' - but there are a lot of films by that name!
However I think most of them use the word as a metaphor for chaos and have nothing to do with any weather phenomenon.

Topic: soaked to the bone
Posted: Tuesday, October 16, 2018 3:37:58 PM
soaked to the skin, anyone?

Frozen to the bone?

Does anyone say soaked to the bone - please come forward, because I am curious as to where all these idioms come from that nobody recognises!
Topic: Scottish Power will become 100% wind
Posted: Tuesday, October 16, 2018 3:00:34 PM
That is because it is far more attractive to sell the gas to other people rather than Scottish energy companies!

Quote:
Value of Scottish North Sea oil and gas rises by 15.2%
13 September 2017

An increase in production and prices has boosted the value of Scottish North Sea oil and gas, according to new figures.

Official statistics showed oil and gas production in Scotland rose year-on-year by 2.9% in 2016-17 to about 74.7 million tonnes of oil equivalent.

The figure, which represented 82% of total UK production, was the highest since 2011-12.

The approximate sales value was £17.5bn - 15.2% higher than in 2015-16.

Scottish government statisticians attributed the rise in revenues to the increase in production and a rise in prices towards the end of last year and during the first quarter of 2017.

Operating expenditure, excluding decommissioning, was estimated to be £5.9bn - similar to the previous year, despite the increase in production.

Capital expenditure was down from £10.1bn to about £8bn.


It does look like the North Atlantic power cables will be the long-term solution, despite all the hassle of Brexit. And meanwhile - local is best - at least if you live on an island where wind is pretty much guaranteed.

Quote:
Full-time power switched on in Fair Isle
00:01 Friday, 12 October 2018 | Written by Chris Cope


The new Fair Isle electricity scheme. The new Fair Isle electricity scheme. GUARANTEED round the clock power has arrived in Fair Isle - leading to hopes that it could attract more people to visit and live on the remote island.

Scottish energy, connectivity and islands minister Paul Wheelhouse was due to formally launch Fair Isle's new £3.5 million renewable power scheme this afternoon (Friday), but windy weather put paid to his trip.

Highlighting the fragility of the island, it is expected that no-one will be able to get in or out of Fair Isle until Monday when flights should resume.

However, the 55-strong local community is still set to celebrate the official launch of the system later today, which has already been switched on for the last couple of weeks to allow any teething problems to be fine-tuned.

The new system consists of three new 60kW wind turbines, a 50kW solar array and battery storage capable of holding 50 hours of power, while it will also extend a high voltage network across the island.

The three-mile long island has used a combination of wind and diesel power since the 1980s, but it had been lights out between 11.30pm and 7.30am on nights when wind turbines weren't operating.

The two existing turbines had also suffered technical problems, with one ultimately shutting off completely, while there was no capacity for any new customers.

The new energy system has been led by Fair Isle Electricity Company, which secured funding from a range of bodies including the Scottish Government, Highlands and Enterprise and Scottish Water.

Other funding sources included Shetland Islands Council and the National Trust for Scotland, which owns Fair Isle.


http://www.shetnews.co.uk/news/17100-full-time-power-for-fair-isle


Topic: a stepped care approach
Posted: Tuesday, October 16, 2018 12:55:25 PM
You could use a definite article. But here they have chosen not to. It is one approach out of many, and 'stepped care describes that approach. Like saying 'a black cat'.

They have not mentioned any approach before, so this is an indefinite article.

It would be a definite article if you define it:
eg
The approach that we use is a stepped care approach.

or have previously mentioned it
We use a stepped care approach. The approach requires cooperation between..........


There could be instances where you might want to use the definite article, as the words 'stepped care' identify the type of approach - but since it hasn't been specified, it is more natural here to just use it as an indefinite article - an approach, one out of several possible approaches.

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