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User Name: thar
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Last Visit: Saturday, February 17, 2018 5:51:01 PM
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Topic: Winter Olympic mountains
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 3:52:23 PM
I know I should marvel at the skill or commitment - but I wonder how it came to be there are mountains there - so here is the answer! Whistle

NASA image

This writing is a bit florid, but...

Cycles of Mountain Building Formed 2018 Winter Olympics Terrain
The Korean Peninsula’s rich geologic history can be traced on the slopes of the alpine ski course.

By Aaron Sidder 9 February 2018

Over the next few weeks, wind-battered, Lycra-clad Olympic skiers will perch atop South Korea’s Yongpyong Alpine Center awaiting their runs. As the starting bell reverberates through their aerodynamic helmets, the skiers will fling themselves forward, hurtling downhill with astonishing speed and grace. Little do they know that as they speed toward the finish line, they are traversing millions of years of geologic time.

Yongpyong and most other venues at the PyeongChang Olympics are located in the Taebaek Mountains, which stretch along the east coast of the Korean Peninsula for more than 480 kilometers. With an average elevation nearly 600 meters above sea level, the mountains boast a rich history of winter sports: Yongpyong has hosted numerous alpine skiing championships through the years. This year, the men’s and women’s giant slalom, slalom, and alpine team events are playing out on its slopes.

The center, located roughly 6 kilometers southwest of the PyeongChang Olympic Stadium, also happens to sit on a notable geologic boundary.
As competitors descend the mountain, they “rapidly pass a time gap on the ski slope, like in a time machine,” said Moonsup Cho, a geologist and invited professor at Kyushu University in Japan. The boundary at the bottom of the slope abruptly divides 250-million-year-old rocks from an adjacent layer that clocks in at just 170 million years old. Cho and two colleagues published a geologic review of the Korean Peninsula and the Olympic Winter Games venues that appeared in International Geology Review on 15 January.

The geology of Yongpyong and the Taebaek Mountains tells a story of repeated mountain-building events and tectonic motion that molded the terrain into the winter wonderland it is today. A close look at the Yongpyong ski course does not detail the entire history of the peninsula, whose age exceeds 2 billion years, but it does reveal how ancient geologic events created the modern PyeongChang landscape so well suited to showcasing human agility and daring on snow and ice.

The Starting Gate

As skiers heave themselves down the mountain and carve across the Camel Back and Devil Ridge portions of the course, they sweep over rocks that formed when the North China and South China blocks of continental crust plowed into each other 250 million years ago. The collision created one of the early mountain chains that dominated this region—a massive 2,000-kilometer-long wrinkle that stretched from central China across Korea and into Japan. This Triassic period range rivaled today’s Himalayas.

That early uplift left behind the sedimentary rocks of what’s called the Nogam Formation, Korean for “green rocks.”Those mountain peaks were ground down long ago, but that early uplift left behind the sedimentary rocks of what’s called the Nogam Formation, Korean for “green rocks.” Where the rock is exposed, this pileup of sandstones, shales, and conglomerates gleams with a green tint produced by minerals such as chlorite. Chlorite minerals often form in environments altered by heat, pressure, or chemical activity. At Yongpyong, the chlorite may have formed when the rocks of the formation were thermally recrystallized, or “slightly cooked” as Cho describes it, by volcanic material that accompanied further tectonic pushing and grinding in the area. As a result, the rocks are harder and more resistant to weathering than surrounding rocks. These rocks are still around today, offering clues to the ancient collision that pushed them up into the view of sleek Olympic competitors.

The Finish Line

Just over a kilometer from the starting gate, the Nogam Formation abruptly ends near the base of a hill when it butts up against a collection of granites known as Daebo granite, one of the most common rock types on the Korean Peninsula.

Daebo granites formed in recent geological time, during a later buildup of mountains at this Olympic venue. About 170 million years ago during the Jurassic period, one of Earth’s great slabs of crust, the Pacific Plate, subducted, or moved under, the Asian continent. This action pushed magma up through the continental crust, which hardened into the Daebo granites found throughout the peninsula.

[ edit - correction - no it didn't! A piece of crust falling down doesn't push up 'magma' and granite is not formed from molten mantle. Apart from those 'oversimplifications', carry on... ]

The Daebo rocks feature in many of Korea’s notable landscapes, including Seoraksan National Park—“a must-see spot for visitors,” according to Cho—approximately 60 kilometers north of Yongpyong. From the top of the alpine center on a clear day, Olympians can see Mount Seoraksan (1,708 meters), the tallest peak in the Taebaek range. Many of the granites in the Yongpyong area occupy valleys because the granites are softer and more susceptible to weathering than the hardened rocks of the Nogam Formation.

Back up the Chairlift

Nogam and Daebo remain from the distant-past episodes that made this place into a modern-day winter sports mecca. But the lofty terrain that dominates today developed only 28 to 20 million years ago, according to Cho and his colleagues, when the Taebaek Mountains uplifted during the tectonic activity that separated the Japanese islands from the Asian mainland.

“About 30 million years ago, the Japanese islands were part of the continent,” explained Kyoungwon Min, a coauthor of the review paper and an associate scientist in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Florida in Gainesville.

As the Pacific Plate moved under the continent, however, the subducting plate triggered volcanism along the eastern margin of the Eurasian Plate. The stretching force generated by such volcanism, combined with the backward movement of the oceanic trench between the two plates, pushed the newly detached Japanese islands toward the Pacific Ocean and shaped a basin that evolved into the East Sea (Sea of Japan). It was this spreading that pushed up the Taebaek peaks and exposed much of the Nogam Formation and Daebo granite seen around Yongpyong today, Min said.

Although these formations and the titanic forces that created them are just a backdrop for the Olympic performances beginning today in PyeongChang, they will remain quietly at work during the games. As Robert Stern, a professor of geosciences at the University of Texas at Dallas, put it, “The Winter Olympics, in general, and especially the outdoor events, represent an opportunity to discuss our planet and our science.”

Citation: Sidder, A. (2018), Cycles of mountain building formed 2018 Winter Olympics terrain, Eos, 99, Published on 09 February 2018.
© 2018. The authors. CC BY-NC-ND 3.0

I was going to add a more sedate version from Forbes, but I don't trust 'scientific' writing by someone who doesn't know the difference between terrain and terrane - or who has an editor who helpfully 'corrected' it. d'oh!

So I won't. Whistle

Edit - now I've read this one properly, the Forbes doesn't look so bad, now... Whistle

Topic: searched flour
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 3:01:40 PM
Possibly because it is obsolete?
(MW says archaic)
Edit -
Here is an alternative version of the same words...:

searce (plural searces)

(obsolete) A sieve; a strainer.
1603, John Florio, transl.; Michel de Montaigne, Essayes, London: Edward Blount, OCLC 946730821:
, II.12:
Yet will our selfe overweening sift his divinitie through our searce [transl. estamine]: whence are engendred all the vanities and errours wherewith the world is so full-fraught […].
Verb Edit
searce (third-person singular simple present searces, present participle searcing, simple past and past participle searced)

(obsolete) To sift; to bolt.
1719 April 25, [Daniel Defoe], The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who Lived Eight and Twenty Years, All Alone in an Un-inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River Oroonoque; having been Cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein All the Men Perished but Himself. With an Account how He was at Last as Strangely Deliver’d by Pyrates, London: Printed by W[illiam] Taylor at the Ship in Pater-Noster-Row, OCLC 15864594; 3rd edition, London: Printed by W[illiam] Taylor at the Ship in Pater-Noster-Row, 1719, OCLC 838630407, page 144:

My next Difficulty was to make a Sieve, or Searſe, to dreſs my meal, and to part it from the Bran and the Huſk, without which I did not ſee it poſſible I could have any Bread. […] I had nothing like the neceſſary Things to make it with—I mean fine thin Canvas, or Stuff, to ſearſe the Meal through.

Yeah, anything where the most recent quote uses a different alphabet - probably not in common usage! Whistle
Topic: America vs British English
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 2:55:13 PM
Yeah, what I meant was the difference between 'one' meaning 'I' and 'one' meaning a generalised person (he).

In speech, it would be common to mix them together - sometimes by the time you get to the second pronoun you might have forgotten what the first one was. I don't know if there is a deliberate choice in AmE - we will have to see what the AmEers say.
Topic: America vs British English
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 7:27:07 AM
Just last night....

No, not so much. No lizardsWhistle

And since I have been working in schools I appear to have stopped swearing even when not there. I think I have successfully brainwashed myself. d'oh!

Shit. No, I'm cool, it's back. Whistle
Topic: America vs British English
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 5:55:43 AM
True. I was joking (or exaggerating) when I said that, but I should be more careful with the impression I give to others.

I am a great believer in 'whatever is natural for you is right'. It is funny - it is frowned upon to criticise 'common' speech, but OK to criticise others for sounding stuck up. Phoneyness, whichever way it goes, is unfortunates but not a crime, and genuine speech patterns should all be valued. Inverse snobbery is just as discriminatory as snobbery.
Also, frankly, if you are saying something interesting people probably don't even notice the actual words.Whistle

But, thinking about it, my example is not an accurate alternative. I got distracted by the OP sentences.
KE - do you understand where 'one' is used in different contexts, and which person it is a pronoun for?
One has to be aware of where one uses it.
But it is a useful pronoun.

Having said that, I don't think it is a natural part of my vocabulary.
Topic: America vs British English
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 4:08:13 AM
Duplicate, answered in other.

Although the explanation of duplication is in the other one. d'oh!
Too late now. Whistle
Topic: America vs British English
Posted: Saturday, February 17, 2018 4:06:12 AM
I'm not American, so this is not definitive answer, but I don't think AmE uses the pronoun 'one' much.
But if you do use it, you are consistent - one, one's. You can't change from 'one' to 'his'.

A person must... his best.

Although nowadays, the male pronoun for generalisations sounds wrong, except for in old fixed phrases.

As a BrE speaker I would say
A person must.....their...

Only the Queen or Prince Charles would say 'one'. Whistle
Topic: over
Posted: Friday, February 16, 2018 9:51:50 AM

14. At an end: Summer is over.

Because her phone call was finished, she was able to come and shoo us away.

Not sure about the verb,though - unless she got out the blacksmiths' tools!

shoo (ʃuː)
go away!: used to drive away unwanted or annoying people, animals, etc
vb, shoos, shooing or shooed
1. (tr) to drive away by or as if by crying "shoo."
Topic: 'To be' vs perfect infinitive
Posted: Friday, February 16, 2018 8:07:18 AM
There is a state - you are "raised by a working mother".
That is what makes you what you are.

There is a personal history - you have been raised by a working mother.
That is what has made you what you are.

The infinitive is timeless. If you want to, you can include the tense that places it in the past. But the effect is the same. It is not a big deal. The first is simpler.

Put that into the infitive, and it becomes
the first to be raised
the first to have been raised
Topic: Unofficial survey on varieties of English in TFD forums
Posted: Friday, February 16, 2018 7:27:24 AM
It also matters if you are seen out in public in just your vest and pants, if you are told to walk on the pavement - or if you want to buy a dresser! Whistle

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