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Profile: thar
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User Name: thar
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Joined: Thursday, July 8, 2010
Last Visit: Monday, October 14, 2019 6:18:54 AM
Number of Posts: 20,434
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  Last 10 Posts
Topic: Being born
Posted: Monday, October 14, 2019 6:00:14 AM
yes, "to be born" is always a passive structure.

I was born in ....
The baby was born on......
Every year 1000 babies are born with......


They are at risk of something.
They are at risk of .....ing something

so it is a participle after risk of:
at risk of contracting measles
at risk of falling

and in this case, because 'to be born' is a passive structure, it is 'being'
at risk of being born with [some problem].



(the verb 'to bear' is to carry. Passive of that is now 'is borne' (to distinguish it from a birth).

But that same verb gave rise to the idiomatic expression 'to be born' which originally meant being carried within the mother (the pregnancy) but now means the single event of the birth, and the subject of the passive verb structure is the baby.)

The mother 'gives birth'
(there are various words if it is an animal - eg a dog 'whelps'; a cow or a whale 'calves', but I can't think of a sigle word for humans.Think )
You can talk of 'delivering a child' but that is confusing because it is also used for those who help, and not usually for the mother, nowadays.
and the baby 'is born'

Thinking about it, it is quite strange that there is not a single word verb in common English to express that idea - it is one expression that has always had to be used!


Topic: not until (word order)
Posted: Monday, October 14, 2019 12:50:19 AM
Reiko07 wrote:
(1) Not until he was eleven years old did Alice realize her son was a math prodigy.

Good

(2) Not until her son was eleven years old did Alice realize he was a math prodigy.

Good

(3) Not until he was eleven years old did Brian realize his son was a math prodigy.

Good
(Meaning clear and absolutely no potential for ambiguity in this example)

(4) Not until his son was eleven years old did Brian realize he was a math prodigy.

Fine, because the meaning is logical - you realise your child is a prodigy, and a grown man doesn't realise they are themselves a prodigy; so in this example there is no potential for ambiguity in 'he'.

Which is natural?


Not until ...did 'subject realise' [that] ....
Is correctly constructed.

Not until + inversion of auxiliary and subject.


In common conversation you would probably say:
Alice didn't realise her son was a maths prodigy until he was eleven [years old]
The other structure is more elegant, more formal, also but fine in collquial conversation.

(My BrE says maths, not AmE math).
Topic: Upstream of the construction process
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 4:02:50 PM
The processing of construction material flows in one direction, like a river. It only flows in one direction - downstream.

You mine it, (or harvest it) and process it, then use it to build with.

Eg quarry limestone >> process into cement >> export to building site >> add other materials to make concrete >> construct your building.

So everything that happens before the construction is upstream. As you go through the various stages you go downstream.


The UAE is running out of oil. Its future revenue will have to come from tourism products like the Burj. But they are vulnerable if they have to buy the raw materials from other people. Most cement is produced in China, India, US, Iran. But if you want to buy a production facility you would probably look to somewhere like Brazil or Cameroon or Vietnam. To feel secure and in control, they want to buy the quarries and mines so they can own the raw materials they use and not be at the mercy of prices set by somebody else. They then get to sell it as well, so they still have a primary industry when their oil runs out, even though it isn't on their land.



Topic: a smarter you
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 3:42:41 PM
Because it is unspecified.

"a you" is used as a noun - an idiomatic usage - a version of you, a person that you can become.

A smarter "you" is a smarter (US smart - more intelligent, not better presented) version of you. There are lots of possibilities for being a smarter person - you will end up as just one of them, but it does not define the person you will become.


'The' smarter you is that defined version of you which can do something particular. This is just 'a' version of you, undefined.
Topic: transaction
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 2:08:54 PM
Again, it is just another style of publication.

What has been transacted - what has happened . Ie 'news'.

It is just a standard title for the publications of learned societies.

(Learn'ed = academic, technical and professional bodies for that field of research.)


Eg
Quote:
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene is an official journal of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. It publishes authoritative and impactful original, peer-reviewed articles and reviews on all aspects of tropical medicine.




The term is an old one so it is probably not worth trying to work out the logic. Just accept it as the term used. It is confined to this usage - a journal of research submitted to a learned society to be published (not published by companies or universities, or government institutions).

Quote:
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society. ... It was established in 1665, making it the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science, and therefore also the world's longest-running scientific journal.


Any industry body that publishes research may well call them transactions.

Quote:
Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing. Transactions of the Institute of Metal Finishing provides international peer-reviewed coverage of all aspects of surface finishing and surface engineering, from fundamental research to in-service applications



It is just a name for their regularly published journal.

Quote:
Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow. ... The title was eventually superseded by the Scottish Journal of Geology in 1965, when the Transactions of the Geological Society of Glasgow merged with the Transactions of the Edinburgh Geological Society.


Topic: rugby world cup - congratulations Japan
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 1:59:19 PM
I do get the impression that on a certain level, to a small extent (NZ, AUS, England) it is partly a competition of 'our Fijians are better than your Fijians!' Whistle Whistle


Yes, all the quarter-finals decided now:
England - Oz
NZ - Ireland
Wales - France
Japan - RSA

Japan must be in with a chance, at least (edit - at this stage); and the others?
Edit - all of these teams have the ability if not the consistency, so it is anybody's if they can get it together on the day.
Topic: rugby world cup - congratulations Japan
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 1:38:47 PM
WeaselADAPT wrote:
thar wrote:
Commiserations Scotland. Good match.

Japan vs Scotland rugby highlights

Interesting cultural point that in Japan coverage tattooing is a mark of organised crime but for the Pacific Islanders a sign of cultural pride and identity - special dispensation given for foreigners to show their tattoos and not be banned from public places during the world cup, except some places where they are allowed to enter but must cover them up.


It is an interesting point of culture that in Japan, "coverage tattooing" is a mark of organised crime, but for the Pacific Islanders, a sign of cultural pride and identity. Special dispensation is given in Japan for foreigners to show their tattoos and not be banned from public places during the World Cup, with the exception of some places where they are allowed to enter but must cover them up.

the Weasel
WeaselWorks Freelance Editing



Hey, no problem but you don't have to correct my English when I am just having a chat. Culture and whatever is a different thread from grammar.
Edit - oops , or editing my own post to repeat words! d'oh!

Actually, while I don't mind it might make some people reluctant to write, and I think we can all agree we want everyone to feel confident in contributing to the culture section in whatever way they can, however they say it.
That goes for all the sections, of course.
The forum is (or has been, and I hope it can stay that way for at least a while longer) a community forum not just a learners' service.
Topic: more likely to hear
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 12:52:06 PM
In BrE at least, you can say

you would more likely hear...


I meant that you are replacing the whole infinitive ' would be more likely to hear' with the simpler 'would more likely hear'.

You can't tell from this example because the adjective and adverb look the same
but in
be more likely to hear
likely is an adjective (you are likely to do something)

and in
more likely hear
likely is an adverb
eg
you would more easily hear


so
Yes, you can replace it. The structure changes.
eg - to show the changes using another word
You would be happier to hear...
you would more happily hear...

It is the more formal style but it is also common in colloquial speech.
Topic: rugby world cup - congratulations Japan
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 11:53:28 AM
Commiserations Scotland. Good match.

Japan vs Scotland rugby highlights


Interesting cultural point that in Japan coverage tattooing is a mark of organised crime but for the Pacific Islanders a sign of cultural pride and identity - special dispensation given for foreigners to show their tattoos and not be banned from public places during the world cup, except some places where they are allowed to enter but must cover them up.



For anyone who doesn't know rugby, this is what you are missing!

Wales vs Australia

Australia vs Wales world cup group match highlights




Tonga's Sip Tau (their name for the Haka, presumably)


Fiji vs Georgia highlights


and this one for precision kicking from France - who needs a quarterback to throw the ball when you can have a fly-half who can kick it! Whistle

France vs USA




Topic: in the cold pool
Posted: Sunday, October 13, 2019 11:03:38 AM
No, the fish comes from the river [from] or the sea, but the place you caught it was in the river or at sea.

The fish was 'in the river', and the place of 'catching' it was 'in the river'.

The place you caught it from was where the action originated - you caught it from a boat or from the bank.

You could use 'from' if you are defining the fish - where it comes from,(Rather than where you caught it). The type of fish - a freshwater fish.
I caught a fish from the river (ie a fish that comes from a river). But it doesn't sound very natural to me.

To put it another way - 'in the river' is an adverbial phrase of place, and it defines where you caught it.
I caught a fish.
Where?
In the river.



In another example it may be where the object is -
I saw a child in the river. (the child was in the river - you probably weren't, when you saw them.)
But you could argue that is a relative clause [a child who was in the river]. Not adverbial.


If there is a verb implying movement then you would have another preposition.
I pulled lots of shopping carts from the river.
I rescued a child from the river (ie to rescue them you pulled them out).

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