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User Name: raghd muhi al-deen
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Topic: lemon law
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:22:55 AM
lemon law
A law requiring an automobile manufacturer or dealer to replace, repair, or refund the cost of an automobile that proves to be defective after purchase. The automotive company will be shelling out millions of dollars in refunds for faulty ignition switches because congress passed much tighter lemon laws this summer.
See also: law, lemon
Farlex Dictionary of Idioms. © 2015 Farlex, Inc, all rights reserved.

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Topic: Marshall Islands Lutok Kobban Alele
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:22:06 AM
Marshall Islands Lutok Kobban Alele
Marshall Islands Lutok Kobban Alele
Last week of September
The inhabitants of Micronesia's Marshall Islands have long kept a tradition centered on the alele, a soft-sided basket handmade from the native pandanus plant. This treasured item contains a family's most valuable possessions, and according to Marshallese custom, passes through generations in the trust of the family's eldest female.
The phrase "Lutok Kobban Alele" means pour out the valuable contents of the basket. The event of the same name is a weeklong festival that honors the basket as a national symbol and celebrates Marshallese culture in general. The inaugural festival was held in 1986, the year that the Marshall Islands ended a long era under U.S. administration. In years past, the festival has been sponsored by the Marshall Islands Alele Museum.
Festivities conclude with an official ceremony on Manit Day, a public holiday observed on the last Friday of September. Activities take place in the capital city of Marjuro and include performances by Marshallese singers and dancers, feasts promoting local foods, traditional storytelling, and demonstrations of basket weaving and cooking.
Alele Museum
P.O. Box 629
Majuro, MH 96960 Marshall Islands
Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition. © 2010 by Omnigraphics, Inc.

with my pleasure
Topic: Enthusiasm, n.: A distemper of youth, curable by small doses of repentance in connection with outward applications of...
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:17:55 AM
Bierce, Ambrose Gwinett
Bierce, Ambrose Gwinett (ăm`brōz gwĭnĕt` bĭrs), 1842–1914?, American satirist, journalist, and short-story writer, b. Meigs co., Ohio. He fought with extreme bravery in the Civil War, and the conflict, which he considered meaningless slaughter, is reflected in his war stories and to a great extent in the deep pessimism of his late fiction.

After the war, he turned to journalism. In San Francisco he wrote for the News-Letter, becoming its editor in 1868. He soon established a reputation as a satirical wit, and his waspish squibs and epigrams were much quoted. In London (1872–75), he wrote for the magazine Fun and finished three books, including Cobwebs from an Empty Skull (1874). After his return to San Francisco, he wrote for the Argonaut, edited the Wasp (1881–86), and was a columnist for Hearst's Sunday Examiner (1887–96); his writings in the Examiner made him the literary arbiter of the West Coast. Later he was Washington correspondent for the American and a contributor to Cosmopolitan.

Bierce's famous collection of sardonic definitions, originally called The Cynic's Word Book (1906), was retitled The Devil's Dictionary in 1911. His short stories, often dark in tone, grisly or macabre in subject matter, and masterful in their spare language, were collected in such volumes as Tales of Soldiers and Civilians (1891) and Can Such Things Be? (1893). He was also highly praised for The Monk and the Hangman's Daughter (1892), which he adapted from a translation of a German story. Bierce's distinction lies in his distilled satire, in the crisp precision of his astringent language, and in his realistically developed horror stories. Disillusionment and sadness pervaded the latter part of his life. In 1913 he went to Mexico, where all trace of him was lost.

See his Collected Works (12 vol., 1909–12; repr. 1966), Collected Writings (ed. by C. Fadiman, 1946), and Phantoms of a Blood-Stained Period: The Complete Civil War Writings (ed. by R. Duncan and D. J. Klooster, 2002); A Much Misunderstood Man: Selected Letters of Ambrose Bierce (ed. by S. T. Joshi and D. E. Schultz, 2003); biographies by C. McWilliams (1929), R. O'Connor (1967) and R. Morris, Jr. (1996); studies by M. E. Grenander (1971), C. N. Davidson (1982 and 1984), R. Saunders (1984), D. M. Owens (2006), and S. Talley (2009).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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Topic: The Maze Prison Escape (1983)
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:16:18 AM

Maze Prison escape
Maze Prison escape

The Maze Prison escape (known to Irish republicans as the Great Escape) took place on 25 September 1983 in County Antrim, Northern Ireland. HM Prison Maze (previously known as Long Kesh) was a maximum security prison considered to be one of the most escape-proof prisons in Europe, and held prisoners convicted of taking part in armed paramilitary campaigns during the Troubles. In the biggest prison escape in British history, 38 Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) prisoners, who had been convicted of offences including murder and causing explosions, escaped from H-Block 7 (H7) of the prison. One prison officer died of a heart attack as a result of the escape and twenty others were injured, including two who were shot with guns that had been smuggled into the prison. The escape was a propaganda coup for the IRA, and a British government minister faced calls to resign. The official inquiry into the escape placed most of the blame onto prison staff, who in turn blamed the escape on political interference in the running of the prison.
Previous escapes

During the Troubles, Irish republican prisoners had escaped from custody en masse on several occasions. On 17 November 1971, nine prisoners dubbed the "Crumlin Kangaroos" escaped from Crumlin Road Jail when rope ladders were thrown over the wall. Two prisoners were recaptured, but the remaining seven managed to cross the border into the Republic of Ireland and appeared at a press conference in Dublin.[1] On 17 January 1972, seven internees escaped from the prison ship HMS Maidstone by swimming to freedom, resulting in them being dubbed the "Magnificent Seven".[1][2] On 31 October 1973, three leading IRA members, including former Chief of Staff Seamus Twomey, escaped from Mountjoy Prison in Dublin when a helicopter landed in the exercise yard of the prison. Irish band The Wolfe Tones wrote a song celebrating the escape called "The Helicopter Song", which topped the Irish popular music charts.[3][4][5] 19 IRA members escaped from Portlaoise Jail on 18 August 1974 after overpowering guards and using gelignite to blast through gates,[6] and 33 prisoners attempted to escape from Long Kesh on 6 November 1974 after digging a tunnel. IRA member Hugh Coney was shot dead by a sentry, 29 other prisoners were captured within a few yards of the prison, and the remaining three were back in custody within 24 hours.[5][7] In March 1975, ten prisoners escaped from the courthouse in Newry while on trial for attempting to escape from Long Kesh.[5] The escapees included Larry Marley, who would later be one of the masterminds behind the 1983 escape.[8][9] On 10 June 1981, eight IRA members on remand, including Angelo Fusco, Paul Magee and Joe Doherty, escaped from Crumlin Road Jail. The prisoners took prison officers hostage using three handguns that had been smuggled into the prison, took their uniforms and shot their way out of the prison.[10]
1983 escape

HM Prison Maze was considered one of the most escape-proof prisons in Europe. In addition to 15-foot (4.6 m) fences, each H-Block was encompassed by an 18-foot (5.5 m) concrete wall topped with barbed wire, and all gates on the complex were made of solid steel and electronically operated.[11] Prisoners had been planning the escape for several months. Bobby Storey and Gerry Kelly had started working as orderlies in H7, which allowed them to identify weaknesses in the security systems, and six handguns had been smuggled into the prison.[8] Shortly after 2:30 pm on 25 September, prisoners seized control of H7 by simultaneously taking the prison officers hostage at gunpoint in order to prevent them from triggering an alarm. One officer was stabbed with a craft knife, and another was knocked down by a blow to the back of the head. One officer who attempted to prevent the escape was shot in the head by Gerry Kelly, but survived.[8][12] By 2:50 pm the prisoners were in total control of H7 without an alarm being raised. A dozen prisoners also took uniforms from the officers, and the officers were also forced to hand over their car keys and details of where their cars were, for possible later use during the escape.[12] A rear guard was left behind to watch over hostages and keep the alarm from being raised until they believed the escapees were clear of the prison, when they returned to their cells.[12] At 3:25 pm, a lorry delivering food supplies arrived at the entrance to H7, where Brendan McFarlane and other prisoners took the occupants hostage at gunpoint and took them inside H7. The lorry driver was told the lorry was being used in the escape, and he was instructed what route to take and how to react if challenged.[12] Bobby Storey told the driver that "This man [Gerry Kelly] is doing 30 years and he will shoot you without hesitation if he has to. He has nothing to lose".[8]

At 3:50 pm the prisoners left H7, and the driver and a prison orderly were taken back to the lorry, and the driver's foot tied to the clutch. 37 prisoners climbed into the back of the lorry, while Gerry Kelly lay on the floor of the cab with a gun pointed at the driver, who was also told the cab had been booby trapped with a hand grenade.[12] At nearly 4:00 pm the lorry drove towards the main gate of the prison, where the prisoners intended to take over the gatehouse. Ten prisoners dressed in guards' uniforms and armed with guns and chisels dismounted from the lorry and entered the gatehouse, where they took the officers hostage.[12] At 4:05 pm the officers began to resist, and an officer pressed an alarm button. When other staff responded via an intercom, a senior officer said while being held at gunpoint that the alarm had been triggered accidentally. By this time the prisoners were struggling to maintain control in the gatehouse due to the number of hostages.[12] Officers arriving for work were entering the gatehouse from outside the prison, and each was ordered at gunpoint to join the other hostages. Officer James Ferris ran from the gatehouse towards the pedestrian gate attempting to raise the alarm, pursued by Dermot Finucane. Ferris had already been stabbed three times in the chest, and before he could raise the alarm he collapsed.[12]
Map of HM Prison Maze showing the escape route

Finucane continued to the pedestrian gate where he stabbed the officer controlling the gate, and two officers who had just entered the prison. This incident was seen by a soldier on duty in a watch tower, who reported to the Army operations room that he had seen prison officers fighting. The operations room telephoned the prison's Emergency Control Room (ECR), which replied that everything was all right and that an alarm had been accidentally triggered earlier.[12] At 4:12 pm the alarm was raised when an officer in the gatehouse pushed the prisoner holding him hostage out of the room and telephoned the ECR. However, this was not done soon enough to prevent the escape. After several attempts the prisoners had opened the main gate, and were waiting for the prisoners still in the gatehouse to rejoin them in the lorry. At this time two prison officers blocked the exit with their cars, forcing the prisoners to abandon the lorry and make their way to the outer fence which was 25 yards away.[12] Four prisoners attacked one of the officers and hijacked his car, which they drove towards the external gate. They crashed into a car near the gate and abandoned the car. Two escaped through the gate, one was captured exiting the car, and another was captured after being chased by a soldier.[12] At the main gate, a prison officer was shot in the leg while chasing the only two prisoners who had not yet reached the outer fence. The prisoner who fired the shot was captured after being shot and wounded by a soldier in a watch tower, and the other prisoner was captured after falling. The other prisoners escaped over the fence, and by 4:18 pm the main gate was closed and the prison secured, after 35 prisoners had successfully breached the perimeter of the prison.[12] The escape was the biggest in British history, and the biggest in Europe since World War II.[11][13]

Outside the prison the IRA had planned a logistical support operation involving 100 armed members,[14] but due to a miscalculation of five minutes the prisoners found no transport waiting for them and were forced to flee across fields or hijack vehicles.[8][15] The British Army and Royal Ulster Constabulary immediately activated a contingency plan, and by 4:25 pm a cordon of vehicle check points were in place around the prison, and others were later in place in strategic positions across Northern Ireland, resulting in the recapture of one prisoner at 11:00 pm. Twenty prison officers were injured during the escape, thirteen were kicked and beaten, four stabbed, two shot, and another, James Ferris, di

with my pleasure
Topic: Shel Silverstein (1932)
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:15:26 AM
Shel Silverstein
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.
Shel Silverstein
Shel Silverstein
Born Sheldon Allan Silverstein
September 25, 1930
Chicago, Illinois
Died May 10, 1999 (aged 68)
Key West, Florida[1]
Occupation Author
Nationality American
Genres Children's fiction
Black comedy
Notable work(s) Where the Sidewalk Ends (1974)
The Giving Tree (1965)
"A Boy Named Sue" (1969)

Sheldon Allan "Shel" Silverstein (September 25, 1930 – May 10, 1999),[1][2] was an American poet, singer-songwriter, cartoonist, screenwriter and author of children's books. He styled himself as Uncle Shelby in his children's books. Translated into more than 30 languages, his books have sold over 20 million copies.[2]
Personal life

Shel Silverstein was born into a Jewish family and had one brother, Tyler Mahns. He attended Roosevelt High School and, later, the University of Illinois, from which he was expelled. He then attended Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and Roosevelt University for three years, until in 1953 when he was drafted into the United States Army. He served in Japan and Korea. He had a girlfriend named Susan with whom he had one daughter, Shoshanna, on June 30, 1970. The child died in 1982 of a cerebral aneurysm. He also had a son named Mathew (b. circa 1984).[3][4]

Shel Silverstein died on May 10, 1999. He died in his home in Key West Florida from a massive heart attack. He was discovered in a bedroom by the maids who had arrived to clean. He died at age 68. Silverstein is buried in Westlawn Cemetery in Chicago.

Silverstein began drawing at age 12 by tracing the works of Al Capp.[5] He told Publishers Weekly: "When I was a kid—12 to 14, around there—I would much rather have been a good baseball player or a hit with the girls, but I couldn't play ball. I couldn't dance. Luckily, the girls didn't want me. Not much I could do about that. So I started to draw and to write. I was also lucky that I didn't have anybody to copy, be impressed by. I had developed my own style; I was creating before I knew there was a Thurber, a Benchley, a Price and a Steinberg. I never saw their work till I was around 30. By the time I got to where I was attracting girls, I was already into work, and it was more important to me. Not that I wouldn't rather make love, but the work has become a habit."[6]
Shel Silverstein's Playboy travelogues were collected in 2007.

He was first published in the Roosevelt Torch (a student newspaper at Roosevelt University), where he studied English after leaving the Art Institute. During his tenure in the military, his cartoons were published in Pacific Stars and Stripes, where he had originally been assigned to do layouts and paste-up. His first book, Take Ten, a compilation of his military Take Ten cartoon series, was published by Pacific Stars and Stripes in 1955. He later said his time in college was a waste and would have been better spent traveling around the world meeting people.[7]

After returning to Chicago, Silverstein began submitting cartoons to magazines while also selling hot dogs at Chicago ballparks. His cartoons began appearing in Look, Sports Illustrated and This Week.[8]

Mass-market paperback readers across America were introduced to Silverstein in 1956 when Take Ten was reprinted by Ballantine Books as Grab Your Socks! The edition included a foreword by Bill Mauldin.

In 1957, Silverstein became one of the leading cartoonists in Playboy, which sent him around the world to create an illustrated travel journal with reports from far-flung locales. During the 1950s and 1960s, he produced 23 installments called "Shel Silverstein Visits..." as a feature for Playboy. Employing a sketchbook format with typewriter-styled captions, he documented his own experiences at such locations as a New Jersey nudist colony, the Chicago White Sox training camp, San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, Fire Island, Mexico, London, Paris, Spain and Africa. In a Swiss village, he drew himself complaining, "I'll give them 15 more minutes, and if nobody yodels, I'm going back to the hotel." These illustrated travel essays were collected by the publisher Fireside in Playboy's Silverstein Around the World, published in 2007 with a foreword by Hugh Hefner and an introduction by music journalist Mitch Myers.[9]

In a similar vein were his illustrations for John Sack's Report from Practically Nowhere (1959), a collection of humorous travel vignettes previously appearing in Playboy and other magazines.[10]
"Now here's my plan..."
"Now here's my plan...", Shel Silverstein's best known cartoon of the 1950s, became the title of his 1960 cartoon collection.

His best known cartoon of the 1950s was featured on the cover of his next cartoon collection, Now Here's My Plan: A Book of Futilities, which was published by Simon & Schuster in 1960. Silverstein biographer Lisa Rogak wrote:

The cartoon on the cover that provides the book's title would turn out to be one of his most famous and often-cited cartoons. In the cartoon, two prisoners are chained to the wall of a prison cell. Both their hands and feet are shackled. One says to the other, "Now here's my plan." Silverstein was both fascinated and distressed by the amount of analysis and commentary that almost immediately began to swirl around the cartoon. "A lot of people said it was a very pessimistic cartoon, which I don't think it is at all," he said. "There's a lot of hope even in a hopeless situation. They analyze it and question it. I did this cartoon because I had an idea about a funny situation about two guys."[2]

Silverstein's cartoons appeared in issues of Playboy from 1957 through the mid-1970s, and one of his Playboy features was expanded into Uncle Shelby's ABZ Book (Simon & Schuster, 1961), his first book of new, original material for adults. Because some of his material was unclear whether it was intended for adults or children, the 1985 reprint had a conspicuous cover label.
Children's books

Silverstein's editor at Harper & Row, Ursula Nordstrom, encouraged Silverstein to write children's poetry. Silverstein said that he never studied the poetry of others and therefore developed his own quirky style, laid back and conversational, occasionally employing profanity and slang. In the 1975 Publishers Weekly interview, he was asked how he came to do children's books:

He is a strong, well-muscled, fit-looking man who wears blue jeans and a big cowboy hat. Though he has to be into his 40s (he's a Korean War veteran), he is also totally in touch with the contemporary scene... How, an author-illustrator alone. Asked if he would change something he had produced on an editor's say-so, he answered with a flat "No." But he added: "Oh, I will take a suggestion for revision. I do eliminate certain things when I'm writing for children if I think only an adult will get the idea. Then I drop it, or save it. But editors messing with content? No." Had he been surprised by the astronomical record of The Giving Tree, his biggest seller to date and one of the most successful children's books in years? Another emphatic no. "What I do is good," he said. "I wouldn't let it out if I didn't think it was." It tells of a tree and the use a man makes of it. When he is a boy, he plays in the tree's branches and enjoys its luscious fruit. Later, he courts his love under the tree and uses some of its wood to build a house for his family. Years pass; the man is now old and alone. The tree lets him take its trunk to carve a boat from, and the man rows away. Finally he returns for the last time to sit and rest on the stump of the tree—all that's left of it.[6][11] But The Giving Tree, which has been selling steadily since it appeared almost 10 years ago and has been translated into French, is not his own favorite among his books. "I like Uncle Shelby's ABZ, A Giraffe and a Half, the sophisticated and the simple.

Otto Penzler, in his crime anthology Murder for Revenge (1998), commented on Silverstein's versatility:
“ The phrase "Renaissance man" tends to get overused these days, but apply it to Shel Silverstein and it practically begins to seem inadequate. Not only has he produced with seeming ease country music hits and popular songs, but he's been equally successful at turning his hand to poetry, short stories, plays, and children's books. Moreover, his whimsically hip fables, beloved by readers of all ages, have made him a stalwart of bestseller lists. A Light in the Attic, most remarkably, showed the kind of staying power on the New York Times chart—two years, to be precise—thought that most of the biggest names (John Grisham, Stephen King and Michael Crichton) have never equaled for their own blockbusters. His unmistakable illustrative style is another crucial element to his appeal. Just as no writer sounds like Shel, no other artist's vision is as delightfully, sophisticatingly cockeyed. One can only marvel that he makes the time to respond so kindly to his friends' requests. In the following work, let's be glad he did. Drawing on his characteristic passion for list making, he shows how the deed is not just in the wish but in the sublimation. ”

This anthology was the second in a series, which also included Murder for Love (1996) and Murder and Obsession (1999). All three anthologies included Silverstein contributions. He did not really care to conform to any sort of norm, but he did want to leave his mark for others to be inspired by, as he told Publishers Weekly:

I would hope that people, no matter what age, would find something to identify with in

with my pleasure
Topic: The P-51 Mustang
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:13:54 AM


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P-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang
P-51 Mustang
P-51D Mustangs of the 375th Fighter Squadron, 361st Fighter Group, Eighth Air Force, mid-1944. The aircraft second from the camera has the new dorsal fin.
Role Fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer North American Aviation
First flight 26 October 1940
Introduction 1942
Status Retired from military service 1984, still in civil use
Primary users United States Army Air Forces
Royal Air Force
Chinese Nationalist Air Force
numerous others (see below)
Number built More than 15,000[1]
Unit cost US$50,985 in 1945[2]
Variants North American A-36
Rolls-Royce Mustang Mk.X
Cavalier Mustang
Developed into North American F-82 Twin Mustang
Piper PA-48 Enforcer
Rolls-Royce Mustang Mk.X

The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang was an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II, the Korean War and other conflicts. The Mustang was conceived, designed and built by North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a specification issued directly to NAA by the British Purchasing Commission. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed and, with an engine installed, first flew on 26 October.[3]

The Mustang was originally designed to use the Allison V-1710 engine, which had limited high-altitude performance. It was first flown operationally by the Royal Air Force (RAF) as a tactical-reconnaissance aircraft and fighter-bomber (Mustang Mk I). The addition of the Rolls-Royce Merlin to the P-51B/C model transformed the Mustang's performance at altitudes above 15,000 ft, giving it a performance that matched or bettered the majority of the Luftwaffe's fighters at altitude.[4][nb 1] The definitive version, the P-51D, was powered by the Packard V-1650-7, a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce Merlin 60 series two-stage two-speed supercharged engine, and armed with six .50 caliber (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns.[6]

From late 1943, P-51Bs (supplemented by P-51Ds from mid-1944) were used by the USAAF's Eighth Air Force to escort bombers in raids over Germany, while the RAF's 2 TAF and the USAAF's Ninth Air Force used the Merlin-powered Mustangs as fighter-bombers, roles in which the Mustang helped ensure Allied air superiority in 1944.[7] The P-51 was also in service with Allied air forces in the North African, Mediterranean and Italian theatres, and saw limited service against the Japanese in the Pacific War. During World War II, Mustang pilots claimed 4,950 enemy aircraft shot down.[nb 2]

At the start of Korean War, the Mustang was the main fighter of the United Nations until jet fighters such as the F-86 took over this role; the Mustang then became a specialized fighter-bomber. Despite the advent of jet fighters, the Mustang remained in service with some air forces until the early 1980s. After World War II and the Korean War, many Mustangs were converted for civilian use, especially air racing and increasingly, preserved and flown as historic warbird aircraft at airshows.
Design and development
North American NA-73X; note the short carburetor air intake scoop and the frameless, rounded windscreen. On production Mustang Is the latter was replaced with a three-piece unit incorporating a bullet resistant windscreen.

In April 1938, shortly after the German Anschluss of Austria, the British government established a purchasing commission in the United States, headed by Sir Henry Self.[9] Self was given overall responsibility for Royal Air Force (RAF) production and research and development, and also served with Sir Wilfrid Freeman, the "Air Member for Development and Production". Self also sat on the British Air Council Sub-committee on Supply (or "Supply Committee") and one of his tasks was to organize the manufacturing and supply of American fighter aircraft for the RAF. At the time, the choice was very limited, as no U.S. aircraft then in production or flying met European standards, with only the Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk coming close. The Curtiss-Wright plant was running at capacity, so P-40s were in short supply.[10]

North American Aviation (NAA) was already supplying its Harvard trainer to the RAF, but was otherwise underutilized. NAA President "Dutch" Kindelberger approached Self to sell a new medium bomber, the B-25 Mitchell. Instead, Self asked if NAA could manufacture the Tomahawk under license from Curtiss. Kindelberger said NAA could have a better aircraft with the same engine in the air sooner than establishing a production line for the P-40. The Commission stipulated armament of four .303 in (7.7 mm) machine guns, the Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled engine, a unit cost of no more than $40,000, and delivery of the first production aircraft by January 1941.[11] In March 1940, 320 aircraft were ordered by Sir Wilfred Freeman who had become the executive head of Ministry of Aircraft Production (MAP), and the contract was promulgated on 24 April.[12]

The NA-73X, which was designed by a team led by lead engineer Edgar Schmued, followed the best conventional practice of the era, but included several new features.[nb 3] One was a wing designed using laminar flow airfoils which were developed co-operatively by North American Aviation and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). These airfoils generated very low drag at high speeds.[13] During the development of the NA-73X, a wind tunnel test of two wings, one using NACA 5-digit airfoils and the other using the new NAA/NACA 45-100 airfoils, was performed in the University of Washington Kirsten Wind Tunnel. The results of this test showed the superiority of the wing designed with the NAA/NACA 45-100 airfoils.[14][nb 4] The other feature was a new radiator design that exploited the "Meredith Effect", in which heated air exited the radiator as a slight amount of jet thrust. Because NAA lacked a suitable wind tunnel to test this feature, it used the GALCIT 10 ft (3.0 m) wind tunnel at Caltech. This led to some controversy over whether the Mustang's cooling system aerodynamics were developed by NAA's engineer Edgar Schmued or by Curtiss, although NAA had purchased the complete set of P-40 and XP-46 wind tunnel data and flight test reports for US$56,000.[16] The NA-73X was also one of the first aircraft to have a fuselage lofted mathematically using conic sections; this resulted in the aircraft's fuselage having smooth, low drag surfaces.[17] To aid production, the airframe was divided into five main sections—forward, center, rear fuselage and two wing halves—all of which were fitted with wiring and piping before being joined.[17]
XP-51 41-039, one of two Mustang Is handed over to the USAAC for testing.

The prototype NA-73X was rolled out in September 1940 and first flew on 26 October 1940, respectively 102 and 149 days after the order had been placed, an uncommonly short gestation period.[18] The prototype handled well and accommodated an impressive fuel load. The aircraft's two-section, semi-monocoque fuselage was constructed entirely of aluminum to save weight. It was armed with four .30 in (7.62 mm) M1919 Browning machine guns, two in the wings and two mounted under the engine and firing through the propeller arc using gun synchronizing gear.

While the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) could block any sales it considered detrimental to the interests of the US, the NA-73 was considered to be a special case because it had been designed at the behest of the British. In September 1940 a further 300 NA-73s were ordered by MAP.[11] To ensure uninterrupted delivery Colonel Oliver P. Echols arranged with the Anglo-French Purchasing Commission to deliver the aircraft, and NAA gave two examples (41-038 and 41-039) to the USAAC for evaluation.[19][nb 5]
Operational history
U.S. operational service

with my pleasure
Topic: Defining Verbs
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:09:41 AM
What is a verb?
Verbs are used to indicate the actions, processes, conditions, or states of beings of people or things.
Verbs play an integral role to the structure of a sentence. They constitute the root of the predicate, which, along with the subject (the “doer” of the verb’s action), forms a full clause or sentence—we cannot have a sentence without a verb.
When we discuss verbs’ role in the predicate, we usually divide them into two fundamental categories: finite and non-finite verbs.
Finite and Non-Finite Verbs
The predicate requires at least one finite verb to be considered complete. A finite verb has a direct relationship to the subject of a sentence or clause, and does not require another verb in the sentence in order to be grammatically correct. For example:

“I swim every day.”
“She reads many books.”
“He talked for several hours.”

Each of the above is a finite verb, expressing an action that is directly related to the subject of the sentence. Non-finite verbs, on the other hand, do not express that relationship directly.
The only verbs that can be considered finite are those in their base form (the infinitive form without the particle to), their past tense form, or their third-person singular form. Verb forms that are never considered finite are gerunds, infinitives, and participles (both past and present).
Let’s look at an example containing both a finite and non-finite verb:

“We are learning about the American Revolution in school.”

This sentence uses the present continuous verb are learning. This functions as a single unit, with learning expressing most of the meaning.
However, learning is a present participle, which is considered a non-finite verb; the finite verb of the sentence is actually just the auxiliary verb are. It is an inflection of the verb be used for a first person plural subject (we).
We can see the difference if we use each verb in isolation with the subject:

“We are”
“We learning”

We can see that the first verb is finite because it expresses a direct relationship with the subject, and it can go on to form any number of complete sentences. For example:

“We are tired.”
“We are almost there.”
“We are a large group.”

The second verb, the present participle learning, cannot make such sentences, and so is not finite. The following examples all require a finite verb to be correct:

“We learning math.”
“We learning a lot.”
“We learning in school.”

To learn more about the differences between these two classes of verbs, go to the section Finite and Non-finite Verbs in this chapter.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs
Every verb is classed as being either transitive or intransitive.
Transitive verbs describe an action that is happening to someone or something. This person or thing is known as the direct object of the verb. For example:

“He’s reading a book.” (The action of reading is happening to the book.)
“The people watched the game from the bleachers.” (The action of watched is happening to the game.)
“I was eating a delicious steak for dinner last night.” (The action of eating is happening to a delicious steak.)
Transitive verbs can also take indirect objects, which are the people or things receiving the direct object. For instance:
“I sent my brother a letter.” (My brother receives the letter through the action of sent.)

Conversely, intransitive verbs do not have objects—their action is not happening to anyone or anything. For example:

“I can’t believe our dog ran away.” (There is no object receiving the action of ran away.)
“There was a lot of dust in the air, which made me sneeze.” (There is no object receiving the action of sneeze.)
“Don’t be too loud while the baby sleeps.” (There is no object receiving the action of sleeps.)

Regular and Irregular Verbs
Just as every verb is either transitive or intransitive, each one is considered to be either regular or irregular
Most verbs are regular verbs, which means that “-d” or “-ed” can be added to their base form (the infinitive of the verb without to) to conjugate both the past simple tense and past participle forms. For example:
Base Form

Past Simple Tense

Past Participle
“I play violin.”
“I bake cakes.”
“I listen to my teacher.”
“I gather firewood.”
“I climb trees.”

“I played violin.”
“I baked cakes.”
“I listened to my teacher.”
“I gathered firewood.”
“I climbed trees.”

“I had played violin.”
“I had baked cakes.”
“I had listened to my teacher.”
“I had gathered firewood.”
“I had climbed trees.”
Irregular verbs, on the other hand, have past tense and past participle forms that do not (or do not seem to) adhere to a distinct or predictable pattern, and they are usually completely different from one another.

with my pleasure
Topic: cosmopolitan
Posted: Monday, September 25, 2017 9:08:02 AM

Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Acronyms, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
cos·mo·pol·i·tan (kŏz′mə-pŏl′ĭ-tn)
1. Pertinent or common to the whole world: an issue of cosmopolitan import.
2. Having constituent elements from all over the world or from many different parts of the world: the ancient and cosmopolitan societies of Syria and Egypt.
3. So sophisticated as to be at home in all parts of the world or conversant with many spheres of interest: a cosmopolitan traveler.
4. Ecology Growing or occurring in many parts of the world; widely distributed.
1. A cosmopolitan person or organism; a cosmopolite.
2. A cocktail made of vodka, orange liqueur, cranberry juice, and lime juice. Also called cosmo.
cos′mo·pol′i·tan·ism n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
cosmopolitan (ˌkɒzməˈpɒlɪtən)
a person who has lived and travelled in many countries, esp one who is free of national prejudices
1. having interest in or familiar with many parts of the world
2. sophisticated or urbane
3. composed of people or elements from all parts of the world or from many different spheres
4. (Biology) (of plants or animals) widely distributed
[C17: from French, ultimately from Greek kosmopolitēs, from kosmo- cosmo- + politēs citizen]
ˌcosmoˈpolitanism n
Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition 2014 © HarperC

with my pleasure
Topic: a legend in (one's) own mind
Posted: Sunday, September 24, 2017 9:18:07 AM

a legend in (one's) own mind
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a legend in (one's) own mind
A person who affects or believes him- or herself to be of greater importance or notoriety than is actually the case. A humorous, ironic twist on the phrase "a legend in one's own lifetime." The assistant manager acts as if she's the only one keeping the company together. She's a regular legend in her own mind.
See also: legend, mind, own
Farlex Dictionary of Idioms. © 2015 Farlex, Inc, all rights reserved.

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with my pleasure
Topic: Whole Enchilada Fiesta
Posted: Sunday, September 24, 2017 9:17:26 AM
Whole Enchilada Fiesta
Also found in: Wikipedia.
Whole Enchilada Fiesta
Late September
The Whole Enchilada Fiesta is marked by lots of red chili, lots of corn meal, lots of cheese, and lots of people. This festival in Las Cruces, New Mexico, draws about 100,000 people who scramble to get a taste of the world's biggest enchilada. It's 10 feet long and is made of 750 pounds of stone ground corn for the dough, 75 gallons of red chili sauce, and 175 pounds of cheese. The enchilada is prepared as the climactic Sunday afternoon event: while thousands watch and cheer, giant tortillas are lifted from 175 gallons of bubbling vegetable oil and smothered with the chili sauce and cheese and served. Before this grand moment, there will have been a parade, street dances, arts and crafts exhibits, and a fun run. Las Cruces is the largest business center in southern New Mexico, but its economic foundation is agriculture, and chilis are a big crop.
See also Hatch Chile Festival
The Whole Enchilada Fiesta
P.O. Box 8248
Las Cruces, NM 88006
Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition. © 2010 by Omnigraphics, Inc.

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with my pleasure

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