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Train Your Brain to Eat Healthy Options
Daemon
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 12:00:00 AM
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Train Your Brain to Eat Healthy

It is not easy to pass up French fries in favor of carrot sticks, but proper brain training can make it easier. Following a high-fiber, high-protein, low-carb diet seems to alter the way people's brains respond to food, making healthier foods more appealing. After six months of following this diet, overweight and obese men and women showed changes in activity in the reward centers of their brains indicating greater enjoyment of healthier foods and decreased sensitivity to unhealthy, higher-calorie foods. They also lost significantly more weight than a control group not on the diet. More...
MechPebbles
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 3:52:27 AM

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Unlike what most people think, not all carbohydrates are bad. A high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is not healthy.
NeuroticHellFem
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 4:04:46 AM

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The changes in the brain's reward centre are interesting. We haven't been told the protein/carb ratio. Aren't the kidneys put at risk on a high protein diet?
I'm curious, but I don't have enough info. I'm dubious about long term benefits apart from the weight loss.

When you make an assumption, you make an ass of u & umption! - NeuroticHellFem
pedro
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 4:25:50 AM

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High protein diet = risk of damage to kidneys, osteoporosis, diabetes and a lot more probably. Faddish diets are designed for people who have already been damaging themselves with a lousy food regime and are therefore doomed to fail. We have access (unfortunately perhaps) to foods from around the world and just eat too much of them. Base your diet on some trusted peasant foods with the occasional treat and don't drink yourself unconscious too often and you won't go far wrong.IMHO.

All good ideas arrive by chance- Max Ernst
GreenBanana
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 9:34:36 AM

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And that's how we can avenge the deaths of the innocent lives aboard that plane.

Make every post as if it was the first one in the thread.
Trivium_Discipulus
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 9:50:56 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 12/20/2013
Posts: 819
Neurons: 350,106
Location: San Diego, California, United States
MechPebbles wrote:
Unlike what most people think, not all carbohydrates are bad. A high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet is not healthy.


High or low anything isn't ideal.

Moderate everything is the best, IMHO.

New research squashes the high carbohydrate delusion that actually promotes illness... it is amazing what real research forced upon the establishment by millions of people rejecting their rigged orthodoxy can reveal...

Are You Ready To Listen Yet?
http://market-ticker.org/akcs-www?post=229366

A Call for a Low-Carb Diet That Embraces Fat
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/09/02/health/low-carb-vs-low-fat-diet.html?_r=1



The best way to control the opposition is to finance it. Birds of prey have two wings; the left wing & right wing.
thar
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 3:49:41 PM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 7/8/2010
Posts: 20,830
Neurons: 84,243
Train the dictionary daemon to use adverbs?

I eat turkey. I don't eat healthy, I find it gets caught between my teeth. I do [sometimes] eat healthily.Whistle
JUSTIN Excellence
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 5:53:01 PM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 6/25/2014
Posts: 401
Neurons: 2,787
Location: Veinau, Baden-Wuerttemberg Region, Germany

Quote:
“A living system, due to its circular organization, is an inductive system and functions always in a predictive manner; what occurred once will occur again. Its organization (both genetic and otherwise) is conservative and repeats only that which works.”
-- Humberto Maturana, Santiago, Chile


Dieting seems to be largely about choosing what to eat. We believe that we determine which foods are the tastiest, most nutritional, filling, best for the environment, and cheapest. It is a complicated task, and yet there is still more to it. The categories change frequently, over years and sometimes days. If salmonella is discovered on spinach in one restaurant that receives its produce from a large corporation, then it is possible that any of the other ones might have it too. This causes spinach sales to drop, a short-lasting phobia of green leafy vegetables may develop, and what was yesterday a healthy lunch choice is now a host to a potentially deadly bacterium. Also, there are discrepancies within the qualifying categories for foods. What some claim to be a healthy food, others suggest never to eat, like fish, which has healthy fat but can have high levels of mercury. However, from the inconsistency and chaos that is our understanding of food, concrete feelings and ideas about health and nutrition can emerge.

The latter decades of the twentieth century focused on the differences between tasty, inexpensive food and healthy food, as seen in popular works such as Fast Food Nation and Super Size Me. This discrepancy is stereotyped as a problem of the industrialization of food, from restaurant food like the Big Mac to the store bought Twinkies, which are inexpensive and easy to obtain because they are produced in mass quantity. The effect that such industrialized fast food has had on our world is significant. It is claimed that it has drastically altered eating habits and is labeled as the primary cause of widespread weight gain. In addition, it is often described as part of a food-industrial conspiracy with innumerable connections to both economical and structural development. Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation (2002) is perhaps the best representation of the Industrial Food Machine, from giant slaughterhouses that process thousands of cattle a day to the transformation of corn into high-calorie corn syrup—all of which ends up in the McDonald’s menu. Fast Food Nation embodies a popular feeling that corporations lower quality standards in order to turn a profit. The health results are, according to this view, that people become obese, lead ever-unhealthier lives, and, on top of all that, damage the environment. Obesity becomes a metaphor for the overall destruction of the human and geographic environment by the industrial food conspiracy. Individuals lack any self-awareness, as such a conspiracy manipulates them into self-destructive acts.



Brief overview on Self-governing

The PFC (prefrontal cortex in brain) has a prominent role in governing behavior. This function is achieved through a complex interaction of many different areas within the PFC which cooperate with subcortical areas integrating cognitive and executive functions to produce the “optimal choice”. The result of this interaction can be also a deleterious one, as observed in drug addicted subjects. This interaction has been elegantly discussed by comparing the functional correspondence between neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies to help define the roles of different PFC areas in supporting optimal decision making. The following brief overview on PFC is not intended to be exhaustive, as far as regards discussion of cognitive and executive functions of sub areas of PFC, but it will address specific features of PFC areas in which catecholamine transmission plays relevant role in overeating.

Dopamine transmission in PFC is directly involved in cognitive processes, in the regulation of emotions, in working memory, as well as in executive functions such as motor planning, inhibitory response control and sustained attention. The association of PFC functions with impulse control is supported by the evidence that damage to the ventromedial PFC causes persistent motivational impulsivity associated with affective instability, reduced capability for decision making, poor executive planning and general apathy towards social life. In general damage of PFC function in humans can therefore affect one or more of the above functions producing personal and social difficulties as observed in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Loss of PFC function can be also generated by traumas, or can result from drug/food addiction. Moreover, PFC functional or anatomical abnormalities are frequently found in individuals with drug abuse disorders and at the same time PFC is thought to have an important role in the onset and in the progression of psychiatric disorders associated with poor decision making such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression.



Role of stress (prenatal, adolescent and adult) on prefrontal cortex function and overeating

Acute stress modulates the neuronal activity of brain regions such as mPFC, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC, insula, and striatum that are also areas of the brain involved in regulation of appetitive behaviors, such as feeding and drug taking. These areas share common a consistent dopaminergic innervation pointing to a role of dopamine in stress-induced reinstatement of drug taking. The preclinical early work of Piazza and collaborators has shown a clear relationship between overeating, stress and glucocorticoids levels, although most of their work was focused on subcortical areas. They have indeed shown that overeating acutely activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and that as characterized by a dysregulation of HPA axis. Although moderate stress can have a positive value on cognition, strong or repeated stress will either be deleterious for cognitive functions or may be a determining factor in vulnerability to mental illness, likely through an alteration of catecholamine transmission in the PFC.

Indeed, it has recently been reported that selectively ablating noradrenergic input into the rat medial PFC attenuates the effects of stress in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, as well as the HPA axis secretory responses, while stress-induced Fos expression in dorsal medial PFC was enhanced and was negatively correlated with stress-induced paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus activation. These observations identify the locus coeruleus as an upstream component of a circuitry providing for dorsal medial PFC modulation of emotional stress-induced HPA activation. Since noradrenergic projection, and its innervations of the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the modulation of working memory and attention, it may be likely that noradrenaline release in the medial PFC could modulate stress response, depending on the evaluation and comparison of environmental stimuli with past experience in mounting adequate behaviourally adaptive responses to emotional stress and environmental challenge in general. Further, the artificial activation of catecholamine transmission in the PFC, such as that produced by amphetamine administration, similarly to stress, can have beneficial or a deleterious effects on cognition depending on the dose and on basal dopamine and noradrenaline transmission. The ability of stress to alter neuronal function has been investigated in 15 smokers undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging who were exposed to a psychosocial stressor, followed by smoking drug cues. The results allowed to observe a significant change in neural activity during stress with an increased neural response to drug cues in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial thalamus, medial temporal lobe, caudate nucleus, and primary and association visual areas. A stress-induced limbic deactivation that predicted subsequent neural cue-reactivity was also observed. The authors thus suggested that stress increases the incentive salience of drug cues.



Addiction: a disorder of awareness, motivation, or self-control

Addiction may be considered the product of an imbalance between two separate, but interacting, neural systems: an immediate one that generates decision making, based on the impulsivity-related amygdala system for signalling pain or pleasure of immediate prospects and a reflective one, based on PFC circuitry for elaborating the value of signalling pain or pleasure of future prospects. The capacity of controlling behavior is challenged by the ability of cues associated with reinforcing activities (food, sex, drugs of abuse, pleasure) of activating circuitry in which dopamine release in the NAcc has a fundamental value. On the other hand self-control efforts involve increased activity in regions of the PFC regulating emotions and cognition (i.e. dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC) and a reduced activity in regions associated with reward processing and craving. These brain areas include the ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate, amygdala, ventral segmental area and occipitofrontal cortex as observed in neuroimaging studies in cocaine users or smokers when they are required to inhibit craving. In smokers a decrease in craving correlated with a decrease in ventral striatum activity and an increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, with ventral striatal activity fully mediating the relationship between lateral prefrontal cortex and reported craving. Interestingly, the activation of similar regions was seen in healthy volunteers who were requested to control response to cues associated with monetary rewards.

Therefore, emotional and cognitive processes that influence decision-making and which may also lead to impulsive behavior or motivational disturbances such as food abuse, drug addiction, excessive spending, risky sexual behavior, may be indicative of an abnormal functioning of PFC or subcortical ventral striatal regions as observed in neuroimaging studies. A further feature of PFC role in cognition deals with the overlapping dopamine and ACh innervations in the PFC. It suggests that all the cognitive processes in which are involved these two transmitters may occur involving local mechanisms. In particular it is of relevance that dopamine agonists increase Ach release and social cognition in rats. Several authors suggested that dopaminergic modulation of PFC cholinergic output is mediated primarily through activation of D1 and D5 type receptors.



Concluding remarks

In summary it has been proposed that according to the theory of top-down control, the PFC and in particular the lateral PFC is responsible for controlling different domains of behavior regardless their content that may vary depending on the subcortical area involved. It may range from food intake, to drug addiction behaviour up to control of emotions and may explain why the effect of resource depletion are no tied to any one self-regulatory domain, as discussed by Heatherton and Wagner. Among PFC areas many are definitively involved in drug/food addiction as well as in self-control and decision making. Nevertheless an interesting observation suggested that the PFC is involved in cognitive functions exceeding the sum of specific functions attributed to its subregions. Thus if behaviour and decision making are considered as an overall result of PFC activity it is interesting to investigate the reason why self-control fails in drug addicts. Thus it could be hypothesized as mentioned before, that chronic exposure to a drug of abuse could disrupt the balance between cortical and sub-cortical activities but it is less clear why some people start taking drugs of abuse. Do they miss an unspecified activity in brain (genetic theory) or is the environment (psychological pressure and need to emulate companion behaviour to be accepted in the group), or is the sum of each factor to push to drug use. Fortunately, in the case of prevalence of the second factor drug taking may not necessarily lead to drug abuse. Considering that an optimal therapy for drug addiction is far to be proposed it remains to pursue prevention by involving young subject, and especially those at risk for drug use and overeating with involving activities in order to occupy brain activities in thoughts that are far from food/drug taking. Nevertheless drug therapy aimed at controlling food taking impulse could be directed on improving the awareness of the consequences associated with pleasure directed behaviours and the capacity to take decisions directed to break the vicious circle of food dependence.

Further Reading...

1) Arnsten A.F., Goldman-Rakic P.S. (1998). Noise stress impairs prefrontal cortical cognitive function in monkeys: evidence for a hyperdopaminergic mechanism. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 55, 362-368.

2) Arnsten A.F. (1999). Development Berridge K.C., Robinson T.E., Aldridge J.W. (2012). Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 9, 65-73.

3) Delgado M.R., Gillis M.M., Phelps E.A. (2008). Regulating the expectation of reward via cognitive strategies. Nat Neurosci. 11, 880-881.

4) Nixon K., McClain J.A. (2010). Adolescence as a critical window for developing an alcohol use disorder: current findings in neuroscience. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 23, 227-232.

5) Schultz W. (2010). Multiple functions of dopamine neurons. F1000 Biol Rep. 2, pii: 2.

6) Stewart J. (2003). Stress and relapse to drug seeking: studies in laboratory animals shed light on mechanisms and sources of long-term vulnerability. Am J Addict. 12, 1-17.

über laboratorium dauernd zur Naturtreue
Fredric-frank Myers
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 6:35:46 PM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 7/26/2014
Posts: 1,405
Neurons: 37,072
Location: Apache Junction, Arizona, United States
Yes, it is a major feat to train your brain to eat well, but the advantages and benefits are enormous. When I now drive fast food "restraint's" I become nauseas from the stench of grease.
nkelsey
Posted: Wednesday, September 3, 2014 8:15:19 PM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 2/9/2014
Posts: 491
Neurons: 192,145
Location: Apóstoles, Misiones, Argentina
Applause
JUSTIN Excellence wrote:

Quote:
“A living system, due to its circular organization, is an inductive system and functions always in a predictive manner; what occurred once will occur again. Its organization (both genetic and otherwise) is conservative and repeats only that which works.”
-- Humberto Maturana, Santiago, Chile


Dieting seems to be largely about choosing what to eat. We believe that we determine which foods are the tastiest, most nutritional, filling, best for the environment, and cheapest. It is a complicated task, and yet there is still more to it. The categories change frequently, over years and sometimes days. If salmonella is discovered on spinach in one restaurant that receives its produce from a large corporation, then it is possible that any of the other ones might have it too. This causes spinach sales to drop, a short-lasting phobia of green leafy vegetables may develop, and what was yesterday a healthy lunch choice is now a host to a potentially deadly bacterium. Also, there are discrepancies within the qualifying categories for foods. What some claim to be a healthy food, others suggest never to eat, like fish, which has healthy fat but can have high levels of mercury. However, from the inconsistency and chaos that is our understanding of food, concrete feelings and ideas about health and nutrition can emerge.

The latter decades of the twentieth century focused on the differences between tasty, inexpensive food and healthy food, as seen in popular works such as Fast Food Nation and Super Size Me. This discrepancy is stereotyped as a problem of the industrialization of food, from restaurant food like the Big Mac to the store bought Twinkies, which are inexpensive and easy to obtain because they are produced in mass quantity. The effect that such industrialized fast food has had on our world is significant. It is claimed that it has drastically altered eating habits and is labeled as the primary cause of widespread weight gain. In addition, it is often described as part of a food-industrial conspiracy with innumerable connections to both economical and structural development. Eric Schlosser’s Fast Food Nation (2002) is perhaps the best representation of the Industrial Food Machine, from giant slaughterhouses that process thousands of cattle a day to the transformation of corn into high-calorie corn syrup—all of which ends up in the McDonald’s menu. Fast Food Nation embodies a popular feeling that corporations lower quality standards in order to turn a profit. The health results are, according to this view, that people become obese, lead ever-unhealthier lives, and, on top of all that, damage the environment. Obesity becomes a metaphor for the overall destruction of the human and geographic environment by the industrial food conspiracy. Individuals lack any self-awareness, as such a conspiracy manipulates them into self-destructive acts.



Brief overview on Self-governing

The PFC (prefrontal cortex in brain) has a prominent role in governing behavior. This function is achieved through a complex interaction of many different areas within the PFC which cooperate with subcortical areas integrating cognitive and executive functions to produce the “optimal choice”. The result of this interaction can be also a deleterious one, as observed in drug addicted subjects. This interaction has been elegantly discussed by comparing the functional correspondence between neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies to help define the roles of different PFC areas in supporting optimal decision making. The following brief overview on PFC is not intended to be exhaustive, as far as regards discussion of cognitive and executive functions of sub areas of PFC, but it will address specific features of PFC areas in which catecholamine transmission plays relevant role in overeating.

Dopamine transmission in PFC is directly involved in cognitive processes, in the regulation of emotions, in working memory, as well as in executive functions such as motor planning, inhibitory response control and sustained attention. The association of PFC functions with impulse control is supported by the evidence that damage to the ventromedial PFC causes persistent motivational impulsivity associated with affective instability, reduced capability for decision making, poor executive planning and general apathy towards social life. In general damage of PFC function in humans can therefore affect one or more of the above functions producing personal and social difficulties as observed in disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Loss of PFC function can be also generated by traumas, or can result from drug/food addiction. Moreover, PFC functional or anatomical abnormalities are frequently found in individuals with drug abuse disorders and at the same time PFC is thought to have an important role in the onset and in the progression of psychiatric disorders associated with poor decision making such as schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression.



Role of stress (prenatal, adolescent and adult) on prefrontal cortex function and overeating

Acute stress modulates the neuronal activity of brain regions such as mPFC, amygdala, hippocampus, OFC, insula, and striatum that are also areas of the brain involved in regulation of appetitive behaviors, such as feeding and drug taking. These areas share common a consistent dopaminergic innervation pointing to a role of dopamine in stress-induced reinstatement of drug taking. The preclinical early work of Piazza and collaborators has shown a clear relationship between overeating, stress and glucocorticoids levels, although most of their work was focused on subcortical areas. They have indeed shown that overeating acutely activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and that as characterized by a dysregulation of HPA axis. Although moderate stress can have a positive value on cognition, strong or repeated stress will either be deleterious for cognitive functions or may be a determining factor in vulnerability to mental illness, likely through an alteration of catecholamine transmission in the PFC.

Indeed, it has recently been reported that selectively ablating noradrenergic input into the rat medial PFC attenuates the effects of stress in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, as well as the HPA axis secretory responses, while stress-induced Fos expression in dorsal medial PFC was enhanced and was negatively correlated with stress-induced paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus activation. These observations identify the locus coeruleus as an upstream component of a circuitry providing for dorsal medial PFC modulation of emotional stress-induced HPA activation. Since noradrenergic projection, and its innervations of the prefrontal cortex play an important role in the modulation of working memory and attention, it may be likely that noradrenaline release in the medial PFC could modulate stress response, depending on the evaluation and comparison of environmental stimuli with past experience in mounting adequate behaviourally adaptive responses to emotional stress and environmental challenge in general. Further, the artificial activation of catecholamine transmission in the PFC, such as that produced by amphetamine administration, similarly to stress, can have beneficial or a deleterious effects on cognition depending on the dose and on basal dopamine and noradrenaline transmission. The ability of stress to alter neuronal function has been investigated in 15 smokers undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging who were exposed to a psychosocial stressor, followed by smoking drug cues. The results allowed to observe a significant change in neural activity during stress with an increased neural response to drug cues in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial thalamus, medial temporal lobe, caudate nucleus, and primary and association visual areas. A stress-induced limbic deactivation that predicted subsequent neural cue-reactivity was also observed. The authors thus suggested that stress increases the incentive salience of drug cues.



Addiction: a disorder of awareness, motivation, or self-control

Addiction may be considered the product of an imbalance between two separate, but interacting, neural systems: an immediate one that generates decision making, based on the impulsivity-related amygdala system for signalling pain or pleasure of immediate prospects and a reflective one, based on PFC circuitry for elaborating the value of signalling pain or pleasure of future prospects. The capacity of controlling behavior is challenged by the ability of cues associated with reinforcing activities (food, sex, drugs of abuse, pleasure) of activating circuitry in which dopamine release in the NAcc has a fundamental value. On the other hand self-control efforts involve increased activity in regions of the PFC regulating emotions and cognition (i.e. dorsolateral and ventrolateral PFC) and a reduced activity in regions associated with reward processing and craving. These brain areas include the ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate, amygdala, ventral segmental area and occipitofrontal cortex as observed in neuroimaging studies in cocaine users or smokers when they are required to inhibit craving. In smokers a decrease in craving correlated with a decrease in ventral striatum activity and an increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, with ventral striatal activity fully mediating the relationship between lateral prefrontal cortex and reported craving. Interestingly, the activation of similar regions was seen in healthy volunteers who were requested to control response to cues associated with monetary rewards.

Therefore, emotional and cognitive processes that influence decision-making and which may also lead to impulsive behavior or motivational disturbances such as food abuse, drug addiction, excessive spending, risky sexual behavior, may be indicative of an abnormal functioning of PFC or subcortical ventral striatal regions as observed in neuroimaging studies. A further feature of PFC role in cognition deals with the overlapping dopamine and ACh innervations in the PFC. It suggests that all the cognitive processes in which are involved these two transmitters may occur involving local mechanisms. In particular it is of relevance that dopamine agonists increase Ach release and social cognition in rats. Several authors suggested that dopaminergic modulation of PFC cholinergic output is mediated primarily through activation of D1 and D5 type receptors.



Concluding remarks

In summary it has been proposed that according to the theory of top-down control, the PFC and in particular the lateral PFC is responsible for controlling different domains of behavior regardless their content that may vary depending on the subcortical area involved. It may range from food intake, to drug addiction behaviour up to control of emotions and may explain why the effect of resource depletion are no tied to any one self-regulatory domain, as discussed by Heatherton and Wagner. Among PFC areas many are definitively involved in drug/food addiction as well as in self-control and decision making. Nevertheless an interesting observation suggested that the PFC is involved in cognitive functions exceeding the sum of specific functions attributed to its subregions. Thus if behaviour and decision making are considered as an overall result of PFC activity it is interesting to investigate the reason why self-control fails in drug addicts. Thus it could be hypothesized as mentioned before, that chronic exposure to a drug of abuse could disrupt the balance between cortical and sub-cortical activities but it is less clear why some people start taking drugs of abuse. Do they miss an unspecified activity in brain (genetic theory) or is the environment (psychological pressure and need to emulate companion behaviour to be accepted in the group), or is the sum of each factor to push to drug use. Fortunately, in the case of prevalence of the second factor drug taking may not necessarily lead to drug abuse. Considering that an optimal therapy for drug addiction is far to be proposed it remains to pursue prevention by involving young subject, and especially those at risk for drug use and overeating with involving activities in order to occupy brain activities in thoughts that are far from food/drug taking. Nevertheless drug therapy aimed at controlling food taking impulse could be directed on improving the awareness of the consequences associated with pleasure directed behaviours and the capacity to take decisions directed to break the vicious circle of food dependence.

Further Reading...

1) Arnsten A.F., Goldman-Rakic P.S. (1998). Noise stress impairs prefrontal cortical cognitive function in monkeys: evidence for a hyperdopaminergic mechanism. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry, 55, 362-368.

2) Arnsten A.F. (1999). Development Berridge K.C., Robinson T.E., Aldridge J.W. (2012). Dissecting components of reward: 'liking', 'wanting', and learning. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 9, 65-73.

3) Delgado M.R., Gillis M.M., Phelps E.A. (2008). Regulating the expectation of reward via cognitive strategies. Nat Neurosci. 11, 880-881.

4) Nixon K., McClain J.A. (2010). Adolescence as a critical window for developing an alcohol use disorder: current findings in neuroscience. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 23, 227-232.

5) Schultz W. (2010). Multiple functions of dopamine neurons. F1000 Biol Rep. 2, pii: 2.

6) Stewart J. (2003). Stress and relapse to drug seeking: studies in laboratory animals shed light on mechanisms and sources of long-term vulnerability. Am J Addict. 12, 1-17.
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