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D00M
Posted: Sunday, September 9, 2018 9:54:20 AM

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Hello respected teachers,

What does "by regulations" mean in the following?

It was more unfettered by regulations and state inspections and even by the ability of strong guilds to protect wages.

The custom of speaking is the original and only just standard of any language. Joseph Priestly- Rudiments of EG, 1761.
thar
Posted: Sunday, September 9, 2018 10:38:37 AM

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This is a strange way of putting it so I assume it is comparing the reasons behind its freedom.

It was more unfettered by....

But to ignore that context for a minute - simplify. If it is unfettered, it can be fettered.
What is a fetter?
What does it mean to be fettered by something, metaphorically?

What sort of 'regulations' fit in with the other two problems - state inspections and trade union power?
How do regulations, state inspections and wage agreements affect an employer?

These regulations generally fetter a company.
A company is fettered by regulations.

But whatever this is describing, it was not so fettered by these things.
Drag0nspeaker
Posted: Monday, September 10, 2018 5:52:40 AM

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Location: Livingston, Scotland, United Kingdom
It is a multiple comparison.

The market economy in Britain by the 1720s was arguably the most advanced in Europe.
It was more unfettered by regulations and state inspections and even by the ability of strong guilds to protect wages.
In both France and the Dutch Republic the guilds remained an economic factor while in Britain their power was almost completely broken by the 1660s.
By comparison with Britain and the Dutch Republic, France was a maze of regulations, many of them imposed by a government intent on ensuring quality control.

Practical Matter - Newton's Science in the Service of Industry and Empire, 1687-1851 - Larry Stewart, Margaret C Jacob

The French economy was fettered by government regulations (passive construction). The British economy was not so fettered as the French economy. The British economy was more unfettered by regulations and state inspections.



Wyrd bið ful aræd - bull!
thar
Posted: Monday, September 10, 2018 6:43:00 AM

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I don't know - that seems a complex way of saying they were less fettered by something!

I thought it would mean that the more important point was that they were unfettered.

If the English economy was more unfettered, then in means the French economy was at least somewhat unfettered - it has to be for there to be a comparison.

But to say France was somewhat fettered by these things, and England was less fettered - surely that makes more sense?

It is actually a very important driver in history. From what I understand, France had been more industrially advanced, and the Industrial Revolution really should have started there.The innovation took place in England and Scotland, not only because it had the resources but because it had the entrepreneurs. Steam power, metal-working, mining, spinning and weaving inventions - all because a businessman with an idea could raise capital and build a foundry or factory, or a canal or railway.
In contrast, in France everything was under far more state control, scientific advances went through the Academie system, and they and were not exploited with any urgency. There was far less incentive to invent anything or drive progress because you couldn't make money from it.
Drag0nspeaker
Posted: Monday, September 10, 2018 7:58:05 AM

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Joined: 9/12/2011
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Location: Livingston, Scotland, United Kingdom
I didn't look at it as a double negative, but it is.

You're right, it's clearer and simpler to say "[The British economy] was less fettered by regulations and state inspections [than the French economy]".

*******************
I don't remember the details any more (it's things I have picked up over years of reading) but I do remember hearing of a few things which were developed simultaneously in Scotland and Britain and in France and Europe - but the European ones never 'got off the ground'.

At least one I'm sure of was road-building (important in the industrial revolution) - the first development of the Roman-style road (made of several compacted layers of broken stone - with the last layer being fine gravel compacted to an almost solid surface) was by Trésaguet in France.
However, Telford in Scotland is the one made famous for this style of road - and of course MacAdam a few years later made his name almost synonymous with 'roadway'.

However, there is one thing which went the other way.
Champagne is British.

The claim by the French to have invented champagne is nothing but Gallic bluster.

It was a 17th century cider maker from Gloucester who first came up with the idea.
Christopher Merrett not only devi­sed the method of fermentation which gives champagne its sparkle, he also invented the stronger glass needed to stop the bottles exploding under pressure.

Merrett delivered a paper to the Royal Society in London in 1632 setting out his discovery - six years before Dom Perignon, the French monk generally credited with inventing champagne, was even born.

JO WILLEY Sep 27, 2008

Wyrd bið ful aræd - bull!
thar
Posted: Monday, September 10, 2018 3:02:32 PM

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Joined: 7/8/2010
Posts: 18,018
Neurons: 73,101
Arr, so it really be scrumpy they are spraying all over the place at them fast car races?

Whistle

And thanks for the info - I never even knew Telford was Scottish! A serious gap in my understanding! d'oh!

For some strange reason I always associated him with the Ironbridge / Shropshire area. Whistle
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