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Daemon
Posted: Friday, March 17, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Liberalia

Liber and Libera were ancient Roman fertility deities, worshipped along with Ceres. The triad of Ceres, Liber, and Libera was identified with the Greek deities Demeter, Dionysus, and Persephone. At the festival held in honor of Liber and Libera on March 17, young Roman boys who had come of age wore the toga virilis for the first time. In the ancient Italian town of Lavinium, a whole month was consecrated to Liber. The various rituals carried out during this time were designed to ensure the growth of newly planted seeds. More...
monamagda
Posted: Friday, March 17, 2017 1:09:18 PM

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Liber and Libera
Liber, as his name suggests, is the god of the “free” and personifies freedom in various aspects of the word. The word liber also denotes the concept of libations – a ritual offering of drink. He is a god, who, like many other gods, plays different roles: he is the god of freedom, wine and viniculture, fertility, and also serves as a protection deity. He protects aspects of agriculture, including the grape vine and the seeds of grapes, wine, wine vessels (amphorae), along with male fertility.

Libera, his female equivalent, is almost identical to him and is sometimes completely merged with Liber – however, while Liber protects male fertility, Libera possesses the protection over a woman’s fertility.

Unlike some Roman gods, Liber does not have a Greek counterpart but is often identified alongside Bacchus / Dionysus and their mythology but is not entirely connected or incorporated by them. Liber can be linked back to two separate early archaic fertility cults: one being that of Ceres, an agricultural goddess, and Libera, who is Liber’s female equivalent. In late Republican Rome, Cicero describes Liber being the son of Ceres, however, his origins are not well known. His connections to Bacchus and Ceres brought him into the Aventine Triad and he carries various aspects of older Italian or Latin cults into the more concentrated center of Roman religion.

Shortly after the fall of the monarchy, Liber comes into Roman tradition and becomes more important as the plebeian class grew more upset with the patrician class. Liber now becomes the patron god of Rome’s plebeian class and becomes associated with forms of “plebeian disobedience” to religious, cultural, and civil authority of the patricians. Aspects of his cult were – and continue to remain – “un-Roman” – such as civil disobedience towards the patricians, to the point where Gaius Cassius Longinus minted coins with Liber(a)’s face after the assassination of Julius Caesar. Liber asserted the right to free speech, expression, and “ecstatic release,” as the personification of liberty and the plebeians.

According to Livy, A. Postumius, started a series of games and founded a joint temple to the Aventine Triad in 496 BCE. In 493, the temple was dedicated and the ludi scaenici were held in honor of Liber. These games included religious and “cultural” dramas, which were satirical in a religious context. These ludi have been identified as the early forms of the main festival for Liber and Libera – the Liberalia.

The Liberalia is held on 17 March each year and marks the time when sons at the age of 14 came of age. The festival is timed in the spring which marks the renewal of fertility. On 17 March, a portable shrine was carried through Rome’s neighborhoods and his priestesses, who wear ivy crowns, offered honey cakes and sacrifice. On this day, young men celebrated their coming of age. This means they cut off their first beard and dedicated them to the household lares, and if citizens, wore their toga virilus, and taken to be registered with their fathers in the Forum. They were then free to leave their father’s house, vote, marry, have children, serve in the military, etc.


http://romanrepublic.org/bibliotheca/index.php?title=Liber_and_Libera
olddogg eleventy2
Posted: Friday, March 17, 2017 1:26:04 PM

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Where can I find a green toga? Very interesting. More ancient gods to sort through. Oh well! Thank you.
taurine
Posted: Friday, March 17, 2017 7:02:47 PM

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Corpus Juris Canonici
taurine
Posted: Friday, March 17, 2017 7:04:01 PM

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Liber Sextus Decretalium
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