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Declension of 'Iesus' Options
Audiendus
Posted: Thursday, April 21, 2016 8:40:02 AM
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Here is the declension of the name 'Iesus':

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Iesus#Latin

Note the irregularity, particularly the genitive form Iesu. Can anyone explain the reason for this?
thar
Posted: Thursday, April 21, 2016 11:42:21 AM

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Maybe just because? Whistle


Quote:
Highly irregular, but often considered to belong to the fourth declension.

eg it is slotted into this category. But with a different accusative.
Accusative -um is a 2nd declension Masculine/Neuter type ending.


4th declension
Neuter -ū form
Case...........Singular.....Plural
nominative.....-u...........-ua
genitive.......-ūs(-ū)......-uum
dative.........-ū(-ūī).....-ibus
accusative......-ū..........-ua
ablative........-u...........-ibus
vocative........-u............-ua
Examples:

cornū, -ūs n resp. cornū, -ū n

I don't know if this is from original Roman Latin (from original Yeshua/Yehoshuah/Yeshu?) or a later Mediaeval Latin, presumably via the Greek Iēsous? Greek-root words declined in Latin can be temperamental! Whistle And if it is Mediaeval Latin, you have to admit that, not surprising, they occasionally mangled the language - and whatever reached the most people stuck.

Awaiting more definitive responses...Whistle
SandraM
Posted: Friday, April 22, 2016 5:21:05 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 3/11/2009
Posts: 397
Neurons: 1,444
thar wrote:
Maybe just because? Whistle


Quote:
Highly irregular, but often considered to belong to the fourth declension.

eg it is slotted into this category. But with a different accusative.
Accusative -um is a 2nd declension Masculine/Neuter type ending.


4th declension
Neuter -ū form
Case...........Singular.....Plural
nominative.....-u...........-ua
genitive.......-ūs(-ū)......-uum
dative.........-ū(-ūī).....-ibus
accusative......-ū..........-ua
ablative........-u...........-ibus
vocative........-u............-ua
Examples:

cornū, -ūs n resp. cornū, -ū n

I don't know if this is from original Roman Latin (from original Yeshua/Yehoshuah/Yeshu?) or a later Mediaeval Latin, presumably via the Greek Iēsous? Greek-root words declined in Latin can be temperamental! Whistle And if it is Mediaeval Latin, you have to admit that, not surprising, they occasionally mangled the language - and whatever reached the most people stuck.

Awaiting more definitive responses...Whistle

The accusative -um is regular for masculine 4th declension (like exercitus) and there is no indication that Iesus takes its declension from the 4th declension neuter -ū paradigm.

As for the reason why Iesus has an irregular declension in Latin: the Latin form comes from the Greek form Ἰησοῦς which also has an irregular declension in Greek. Presumably that comes from the name being imported into Greek from Hebrew and therefore not following the morphological rules of Greek names.
See the Wikipedia article, which gives a good summary of the history of the name.
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