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Conjunctive Adverbs and Punctuation Options
Daemon
Posted: Wednesday, September 13, 2017 12:00:00 AM
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Conjunctive Adverbs and Punctuation

When we join two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb, they are traditionally separated with a semicolon. It is also acceptable to use a period and keep them as two discrete sentences. Either way, the conjunctive adverb typically begins the second clause and is followed by what? More...
KSPavan
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Daily Grammar Lesson
Conjunctive Adverbs and Punctuation
When we join two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb, they are traditionally separated with a semicolon. It is also acceptable to use a period and keep them as two discrete sentences.
raghd muhi al-deen
Posted: Wednesday, September 13, 2017 9:15:40 AM

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Conjunctive Adverbs
What is a conjunctive adverb?
Conjunctive adverbs (also called linking adverbs or connecting adverbs) are a specific type of conjunction. Conjunctions are used to join together words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctive adverbs are specifically used to connect two independent clauses.
An independent clause (also called a main clause) contains a subject and a predicate, and it expresses a full thought. In other words, it can stand on its own and makes sense as a complete simple sentence. For example:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play. She didn’t recommend it to her friend.”

This example shows two independent clauses. The first contains the subject Jen and the predicate hadn’t enjoyed the play, while the second includes the subject she and the predicate didn’t recommend it to her friend. Each clause expresses a complete idea and makes sense on its own. However, they would sound more natural if they were connected. This is where conjunctive adverbs come in. For example:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; therefore, she didn’t recommend it to her friend.”

The two independent clauses are now connected in a more natural way, using the conjunctive adverb therefore.
Punctuating the clauses
When we join two independent clauses with a conjunctive adverb, they are traditionally separated with a semicolon (as in our example above). It is also acceptable to use a period and keep them as two discrete sentences. Either way, the conjunctive adverb typically begins the second clause, followed by a comma. (We will examine alternative placement of the adverb later in this section.) However, we cannot separate the two clauses using a comma. For example:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; therefore, she didn’t recommend it.” (correct)
“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play. Therefore, she didn’t recommend it.” (correct)
“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play, therefore, she didn’t recommend it.” (incorrect)

If we choose to separate the two clauses with a period, we must remember to capitalize the conjunctive adverb, since it is the first word in a new sentence.
For the sake of consistency, we will use semicolons in all of the examples below.
Choosing a conjunctive adverb
There are many conjunctive adverbs. To choose the right one, we must consider the relationship between the first and second clause. Let’s look at the example again:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; therefore, she didn’t recommend it to her friend.”

The second clause is a result of the first clause. Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play, and that is the reason that she didn’t recommend it to her friend. So, when we connect the two clauses, we choose a conjunctive adverb (therefore) that makes this cause-and-effect relationship clear. Think about how the relationship between these two clauses is different from the previous example:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play. She recommended it to her friend.”

We still have two independent clauses, but now the relationship between them is different. Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play, but recommended it to her friend anyway. We can no longer use the conjunctive adverb therefore, because we are no longer dealing with cause and effect. Instead, we need to choose a conjunctive adverb like nevertheless, which is used to express unexpected results:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; nevertheless, she recommended it to her friend.”

These are some the most common conjunctive adverbs and their functions:
Result

Comparison

Contrast

Adding info

Adding stronger info

Unexpected Results

Emphasis

Condition
accordingly

comparatively

contrarily

also

further

nevertheless

indeed

otherwise
as a result

equally

conversely

besides

furthermore

nonetheless

in fact

consequently

likewise

however

in addition

moreover

surprisingly

hence

similarly

in comparison

still

therefore

in contrast

thus

instead


on the other hand


rather

Result
When the second clause is a result of something that happened in the first clause, we have a few options. One is therefore, which we looked at already.
We can also use accordingly, as a result, consequently, hence, and thus interchangeably with therefore; the meaning of the sentence remains the same. For example:

“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; hence, she didn’t recommend it.”
“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; as a result, she didn’t recommend it.”
“Jen hadn’t enjoyed the play; consequently, she didn’t recommend it.”

Comparison
When we state that two things are alike, we can use the conjunctive adverbs comparatively and similarly. For example:

“Jen grew up in New York City; similarly, her boyfriend grew up in inner-city Chicago.”
“Sam always wanted to be a famous movie star; comparatively, his brother wanted to be a famous rock star.”

When we state that two things are not just similar, but equal, we can draw a comparison using conjunctive adverbs like equally and likewise.

“Jen grew up in New York; likewise, her boyfriend was raised in the city.”
“Sam always wanted to be a movie star; equally, his brother dreamed of starring in films.”

Contrast
There are two types of contrast that we can illustrate using conjunctive adverbs. The first, known as complete contrast, is when the two opposing things are total opposites. For this type of contrast, we can use any of the contrasting conjunctive adverbs in the table. For example:

“Tom has a black backpack; in contrast, his brother has a white one.”
“I absolutely love singing; on the other hand, my sister hates it.”
“Jen is terrible at math; however, her friend is amazing at it, so she helps her.”

The other type of contrast is weak contrast. This is when the two clauses are opposing but are not complete opposites. For this type of contrast, we are limited to using only the weaker of the contrasting conjunctive adverbs, and not the strong ones like on the other hand and in contrast. For example:

“Jen is terrible at math; however, she still likes it.” (correct)
“Jen is terrible at math; on the other hand, she still likes it.” (incorrect)

“I would have liked to stay in bed all day; instead, I got up and went to the park.” (correct)
“I would have liked to stay in bed all day; in contrast, I got up and went to the park.” (incorrect)

Adding information
Sometimes we want to add information of equal value to the information in the first clause. In this case, we can use also or in addition. For example:

“When you make the dinner, remember that he doesn’t like chicken; in addition, he can’t eat shellfish.”

with my pleasure
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