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unshaven and unkempt Options
onsen
Posted: Tuesday, October 9, 2018 2:52:54 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/14/2017
Posts: 223
Neurons: 4,701
Hello,

1.
Quote:
Joe arrived at work unshaven and unkempt.
unkempt

The characteristic of the sentence is that the adjectives, 'unshaven' and 'unkempt' are used as adverbs in combination with the verb 'arrive'.
I’d be glad if such other combinations of verbs and adjectives were introduced.


2.
Quote:
A. My uncle arrived unannounced yesterday evening. (Oxford Collocations Dictionary)
B. Thousands are going hungry because of the failure of the harvest.
hungry

Q1. Is 'unannounced' acting as an adjective or an adverb?
My answer: an adverb
Q2. Is 'hungry' acting as an adjective or an adverb?
My answer: an adjective


3. Please check if the following self-made sentences are correct with regard to 'hungry' and 'drunken'.
Quote:
C. The children are waiting for their parents hungry.
D. The climbers arrived at the foot hungry.
E. He drove his car drunken heavily.


Thank you

thar
Posted: Tuesday, October 9, 2018 3:34:30 AM

Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 7/8/2010
Posts: 17,853
Neurons: 72,397
onsen wrote:
Hello,

1.
Quote:
Joe arrived at work unshaven and unkempt.
unkempt

The characteristic of the sentence is that the adjectives, 'unshaven' and 'unkempt' are used as adverbs in combination with the verb 'arrive'.
I’d be glad if such other combinations of verbs and adjectives were introduced.




My opinion:

No, by the simple definition of describing his state, not his actions, these are adjectives.
He arrived cold and tired.
He arrived unshaven and unkempt.
When he arrived, he was cold and tired.
When he arrived, he was unshaven and unkempt.
Before he arrived, when he was on the bus, he as unshaven and unkempt.
He remained unshaven and unkempt until he had a shave and tidied himself up.
It describes his state, not the way he did things.



2.
Quote:
My uncle arrived unannounced yesterday evening. (Oxford Collocations Dictionary)
Thousands are going hungry because of the failure of the harvest.
hungry

Q1. Is 'unannounced' acting as an adjective or an adverb?
My answer: an adverb
Q2. Is 'hungry' acting as an adjective or an adverb?
My answer: an adjective



3. Please check if the following self-made sentences are correct.
Quote:
The children are waiting for their parents hungry.

No, it only works with some verbs. They are hungry, the go hungry (that does not mean travel, it means they have no food for a period of time), they arrive hungry.
But it doesn't work for 'wait'.

The climbers arrived at the foot hungry.

Yes, this works with 'arrived'. The climbers arrived at the foot of the mountain cold and hungry but happy and safe.
He drove his car drunken heavily.


No.
The adjective is drunk.
He drove his car drunk.
This is a good example of the difference between the state and the action.
He drove his car drunk. This describes his state - it is about him.
That means he had alcohol in his bloodstream. He was breaking the law and being irresponsible. Even if he drove perfectly well, and nobody noticed, he still drove drunk.

You can modify the adjective with an adverb.
He was drunk.
He was heavily drunk.
You wouldn't normally use an adverb to modify the adjective in this example, because either you drive drunk or you don't. But you could say that.
He drove heavily drunk.

He drove his car drunkenly.
This describes his driving. His car was weaving all over the road, on the wrong side of the road. He was driving dangerously.
It describes the action. Not the reason. It may be that he was drunk. It may be that he was falling asleep, or having a heart attack. It does not describe him. It is about the way he was driving.

Because 'drunkenly' is the adverb, you can't modify it with an adverb like 'heavily'. You can use other adverbs - slightly drunkenly, very drunkenly


He arrived drunk.
= when he arrived, he was drunk. It wasn't the alcohol that the bar served him that made him drunk. He was already drunk when he arrived.
= state

He arrived drunkenly. He staggered up to the door and fell against the doorframe. We had to help him walk or he would have fallen over.
= action

Thank you


eg a news story (that is why the headline is in the present simple, omitting articles)
Action:
Quote:
Man drunkenly books holiday to Brazil and has a great time

A drunken mistake turned out to be the best experience of a man's life after he booked a £520 flight to Brazil.

Jamie Ather, 22, woke up after a night of clubbing to find he had booked a flight from Glasgow to Rio de Janeiro.

"I had absolutely no memory of doing it because I was drunk, and it had honestly never even crossed my mind to go to South America," he said.



And
Quote:

Detective arrived at work so drunk she thought she completed shift in one hour, court hears

A female detective turned up at work so drunk she thought she had finished her entire four-hour shift after an hour, a court heard.

Det Con Donna Montgomery, 51, had arrived for duty at 10am for her first day in a new role but within minutes she had asked for annual leave and by 11am was so drunk she mistakenly believed the time was 2pm.

adverbs describe how he did something. Adjectives describe a person or thing
onsen
Posted: Tuesday, October 9, 2018 4:05:06 AM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/14/2017
Posts: 223
Neurons: 4,701
Thank you very much for your reply.

Please let me have the time to read it again and again.
onsen
Posted: Friday, October 12, 2018 11:36:54 PM
Rank: Advanced Member

Joined: 9/14/2017
Posts: 223
Neurons: 4,701
Hello,

Quote:
A. Joe arrived at work unshaven and unkempt.
unkempt

B. Perpetually unshaven and unkempt, Clyde carries himself with defiant dignity.
Clyde Finster.

In B, the adjectival phrase 'unshaven and unkempt' is located at the top of the sentence.

Q1 Are the following sentences possible?
Quote:
Unshaven and unkempt, Joe arrived at work.
Cold and tired, he arrived.
Drunk, he drove his car.


I added the participle 'being' to 'Unshaven and unkempt, Joe arrived at work.' and obtained the following sentence.
Quote:
C. Being unshaven and unkempt, Joe arrived at work.

Q2 C is a sentence of participial construction.
Is A a type of sentence of participial construction?

Thank you

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